The Influence Of Stuttering
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What is Stuttering
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I now will talk about 2 projects we have carried out at the centre. The first project is a project about communicating knowledge about stuttering to visiting nurses, child-minders and nursery teachers. The second project is a about stuttering and employment. As I mentioned before there is a lack of knowledge about stuttering among the semi-professionals in Denmark. The purpose of the education of these semi-professionals was to ensure that they were able to provide parents with the first very important information about stuttering, and that they should be so knowledgeable about the onset of stuttering that they could refer the child and the parents to a speech therapist if needed.
We obtained funding for the project from the Ministry of Social Affairs so we were able to employ a speech-therapist full-time for half a year to work on the project. I was responsible for the project to the Ministry of Social Affairs so I closely followed the work of the speech therapist and with close supervision, including many discussions, during the project period. The speech therapist was employed at the "Pedagogical Psychological Counselling-office" in a municipality of Funen an Island in the centre of Denmark and as.
She had an office at her original workplace and also worked on the project from there. One or two times a month the Speech Therapist and I met to progress and discuss the details of the project. The project consisted of developing and producing a model for communicating knowledge about stuttering to visiting nurses, child-minders and nursery teachers, a model which could be used by all Danish speech therapists, and very importantly a model which was useful for and practicable for the target groups. The speech therapist found that a course of 3 hours duration was the right length to work with. In this 3 hour course the speech therapist was able to provide the semi-professionals with information about the onset of stuttering, the differences between the onset of stuttering and normal dysfluencies, how the child could be handled in the daily life if he or she had begun to stutter, and finally, how the referral procedure worked.
The speech therapist also found that a course lasting longer than 3 hours was difficult for the visiting nurses, the child-minders and nursery teachers to attend. A 3 hour course could be placed either in the afternoon or in the evening. When organised for the afternoon the semi-professionals were able to arrange substitutes or cover for their jobs. A year after the project the speech therapist offered the visiting nurses, the child-minders and nursery teachers a "brush up" course.
The reason for this is, that when you received new information on a subject, time is needed to put the new knowledge into practise. When you have practised for a while you could discover some problems and questions you need answers to, so the "brush up" course was a good place to receive these answers. When the speech therapist had finished the project she wrote a report about the model of communication of knowledge on stuttering.
This report was printed and mailed free of charge to all the "Pedagogical Psychological Counselling-offices" in Denmark, more than This meant that practically all Danish speech therapists have the possibility to use the report in developing their own courses for the visiting nurses, the child-minders and nursery teachers in their municipalities. From the feedback we have received, we know the model of communication of knowledge has been used in many locations in Denmark.
Furthermore, many speech therapy students, visiting nurses and nursery teachers have bought the report we sell the report for the cost of the printing , so we can say, that the information we want to communicate, namely the importance of early intervention and the importance of knowledge of stuttering for the visiting nurses, the child-minders and nursery teachers, is very much spread in Denmark.
The second project was about stuttering and employment. In fact, it was about stuttering, epilepsy and employment because we carried out the project together with the Information Centre of Epilepsy in Denmark. The reason for this was, that both handicaps are "hidden handicaps" and some of the problems PWS and people with epilepsy face are similar. Another reason was, that by co-operating with another Information Centre we were able to carry out a more comprehensive project and by this obtain more reliable results. The purpose of the project was to investigate employers' attitudes towards people who stutter and people with epilepsy, and to investigate the experiences of peoplewho stutter and people with epilepsy with respect to the work market. The Stuttering Information Centre of Denmark employed Hermann Christmann to manage the part of the project concerning stuttering.
He has, at a previous ELSA-meeting in Fakse Ladeplads, Denmark, presented the results of the project, so I will only say a little about the results as an prelude to what I will talk about: the dissemination of the knowledge gained from the project. Questionnaires were returned from employers, 85 people who stutter and 77 people with epilepsy. I remember Dr. He spiced up the lessons with trips into real-world settings, such as ordering in our local candy shop. The best part: I got out of school for the therapy sessions. Like many children who stutter, my speech became more fluent as I got older possibly because of therapy, but a large proportion of children who stutter get better on their own.
But having had an inspirational speech therapist myself, my Evidence-Based Living antennae began to hum, leading to the question:. Of course, at EBL we know where to turn: To systematic reviews of the literature. Fortunately, a great review of stuttering treatment research exists — in fact, I suggest you look at it just because it is such a terrific example of systematic review. Anne Bothe and colleagues looked at all published studies from — Articles had to be original research, they had to have measurable outcomes, and they had to meet a set of critera for good science described in the article.
One interesting finding right from the start: Only 31 articles met the criteria for sound methods. So even in an area with so much interest as stuttering, very few studies exist that use randomized-controlled designs, have adequate controls for reliability and validity, and look at both short-term and long-term outcomes. Another review by Nan Bernstein Ratner looks at various forms of treatment from a clinical perspective Scientists are continually finding out new things about why stuttering occurs , from the genetic component to the influence of brain structure and function.
Children and adults who stutter may benefit from treatments such as speech therapy, using electronic devices to improve speech fluency or cognitive behavioral therapy. Stuttering may be worse when the person is excited, tired or under stress, or when feeling self-conscious, hurried or pressured. Situations such as speaking in front of a group or talking on the phone can be particularly difficult for people who stutter. However, most people who stutter can speak without stuttering when they talk to themselves and when they sing or speak in unison with someone else. It's common for children between the ages of 2 and 5 years to go through periods when they may stutter.
For most children, this is part of learning to speak, and it gets better on its own. However, stuttering that persists may require treatment to improve speech fluency. Call your doctor for a referral or contact a speech-language pathologist directly for an appointment if stuttering:. Researchers continue to study the underlying causes of developmental stuttering. A combination of factors may be involved. Possible causes of developmental stuttering include:. Speech fluency can be disrupted from causes other than developmental stuttering. A stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other brain disorders can cause speech that is slow or has pauses or repeated sounds neurogenic stuttering.
Speech fluency can also be disrupted in the context of emotional distress. Speakers who do not stutter may experience dysfluency when they are nervous or feeling pressured. These situations may also cause speakers who stutter to be less fluent. Speech difficulties that appear after an emotional trauma psychogenic stuttering are uncommon and not the same as developmental stuttering. Males are much more likely to stutter than females are.