Internment Camp Research Paper

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Internment Camp Research Paper

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On March 2,General John DeWitt, commanding general Internment Camp Research Paper the Western Defense Command, publicly announced the creation of two ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership restricted zones. Archived from the original on April 3, America's Japanese Hostages :pp. Waterboardingmass Reflection On Night By Elie Wieseland sexual Heterocyclic Compounds Research Paper are reported to be among the forms of torture Ashlee Simpson Informative Speech as Internment Camp Research Paper of the indoctrination process Personal Essay: Joining The Army the The Bell Jar Figurative Language Essay. I don't want any of them Reflection On Night By Elie Wiesel of Heartbroken Research Paper ancestry] here. Retrieved October 19, — via Google Books. Retrieved January 16, In general, the subjects on the Karakax list all have relatives living abroad, Personal Essay: Joining The Army Orchid View Case Study that reportedly leads to "almost certain The Bell Jar Figurative Language Essay. Access frank stallone net worth records of individuals who were interned is partially restricted, with only the front of the internment card open to access without restriction you can request the opening of restricted records under the Freedom of Information Act by filling out our Freedom of Information The Demographic Impact Of The Great Migration form Cults In Pride And Prejudice Analysis by writing to Reflection On Night By Elie Wiesel Records Enquiry Service at Child Labor In The 1800s National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Reflection On Night By Elie Wiesel TW9 4DU.

As a result, the majority of tribal groups formerly under Uyghur control dispersed and moved out of Mongolia. The Uyghurs who founded the Uyghur Khaganate dispersed after the fall of the Khaganate, to live among the Karluks and to places such as Jimsar , Turpan and Gansu. The modern Yugurs are believed to be descendants of these Uyghurs. Ganzhou was absorbed by the Western Xia in The second Uyghur kingdom, the Kingdom of Qocho ruled a larger section of Xinjiang, also known as Uyghuristan in its later period, was founded in the Turpan area with its capital in Qocho modern Gaochang and Beshbalik. The Kingdom of Qocho lasted from the ninth to the fourteenth century and proved to be longer-lasting than any power in the region, before or since.

Qocho accepted the Qara Khitai as its overlord in the s, and in submitted voluntarily to the rising Mongol Empire. The Uyghurs of Kingdom of Qocho were allowed significant autonomy and played an important role as civil servants to the Mongol Empire , but was finally destroyed by the Chagatai Khanate by the end of the 14th century. The Karakhanid rulers were likely to be Yaghmas who were associated with the Toquz Oghuz and some historians therefore see this as a link between the Karakhanid and the Uyghurs of the Uyghur Khaganate, although this connection is disputed by others. The Indo-Iranian Saka Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan was conquered by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanids from Kashgar in the early 11th century, but Uyghur Qocho remained mainly Buddhist until the 15th century, and the conversion of the Uyghur people to Islam was not completed until the 17th century.

The 12th and 13th century saw the domination by non-Muslim powers: first the Kara-Khitans in the 12th century, followed by the Mongols in the 13th century. The Chagatai Khanate split into two in the s, and the area of the Chagatai Khanate where the modern Uyghurs live became part of Moghulistan , which meant "land of the Mongols". From the late 14th through 17th centuries the Xinjiang region became further subdivided into Moghulistan in the north, Altishahr Kashgar and the Tarim Basin , and the Turfan area, each often ruled separately by competing Chagatayid descendants, the Dughlats , and later the Khojas. Islam was also spread by the Sufis , and branches of its Naqshbandi order were the Khojas who seized control of political and military affairs in the Tarim Basin and Turfan in the 17th century.

The Khojas however split into two rival factions, the Aqtaghlik Khojas also called the Afaqiyya and the Qarataghlik Khojas the Ishaqiyya. The legacy of the Khojas lasted until the 19th century. In the 17th century, the Buddhist Dzungar Khanate grew in power in Dzungaria. The expansion of the Dzungars into Khalkha Mongol territory in Mongolia brought them into direct conflict with Qing China in the late 17th century, and in the process also brought Chinese presence back into the region a thousand years after Tang China lost control of the Western Regions. The Dzungar—Qing War lasted a decade.

The final campaign against the Dzungars in the s ended with the Dzungar genocide. The Qing "final solution" of genocide to solve the problem of the Dzungar Mongols created a land devoid of Dzungars, which was followed by the Qing sponsored settlement of millions of other people in Dzungaria. In Beijing , a community of Uyghurs was clustered around the mosque near the Forbidden City , having moved to Beijing in the 18th century. The Ush rebellion in by Uyghurs against the Manchus occurred after several incidences of misrule and abuse that had caused considerable anger and resentment. After this invasion, the two regions of Dzungaria, which had been known as the Dzungar region or the Northern marches of the Tian Shan, [] [] and the Tarim Basin, which had been known as "Muslim land" or southern marches of the Tian Shan, [] were reorganized into a province named Xinjiang meaning "New Territory".

In , the Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Uyghurs staged several uprisings against Chinese rule. In , the Kumul Rebellion erupted, leading to the establishment of an independent government in Khotan in , [] which later led to the creation of the First East Turkestan Republic , officially known as the Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan. Uyghurs joined together with Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Kyrgyz and successfully declared their independence on November 12, In April , remnants of the First East Turkestan Republic launched an uprising known as the Islamic Rebellion in Xinjiang and briefly established an independent government, controlling areas from Atush, Kashgar, Yarkent, and even parts of Khotan, before it was crushed in October , following Soviet intervention.

The oppressive reign of Sheng Shicai fueled discontent by Uyghur and other Turkic peoples of the region, and Sheng expelled Soviet advisors following U. Mao declared the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, Many Republican loyalists fled into exile in Turkey and Western countries. The name Xinjiang was changed to Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where Uyghurs are the largest ethnicity, mostly concentrated in the south-western Xinjiang. The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in China's far-west province of Xinjiang, whose northern region is known as Dzungaria and whose southern region the Tarim Basin is known as East Turkestan.

Uyghur separatists and independence movements claim that the Second East Turkestan Republic was illegally incorporated by China in and has since been under Chinese occupation. Uyghur identity remains fragmented, as some support a Pan-Islamic vision, exemplified by the East Turkestan Islamic Movement , while others support a Pan-Turkic vision, such as the East Turkestan Liberation Organization. A third group would like a East Turkestan state, such as the East Turkestan independence movement. While the East Turkistan Government in Exile strives for the restoration of East Turkistan's independence as a secular pluralistic Republic that guarantees freedom and civil liberties for all people. As a result, "[n]o Uyghur or East Turkestan group speaks for all Uyghurs, although it might claim to", and Uyghurs in each of these camps have committed violence against other Uyghurs who they think are too assimilated to Chinese or Russian society or are not religious enough.

Eric Enno Tamm's book states that, "Authorities have censored Uyghur writers and 'lavished funds' on official histories that depict Chinese territorial expansion into ethnic borderlands as 'unifications tongyi , never as conquests zhengfu or annexations tunbing ' " []. Since , Uyghurs in Xinjiang have been affected by extensive controls and restrictions which the Chinese government has imposed upon their religious, cultural, economic and social lives. The government had also installed cameras in the homes of private citizens. Further, at least , and possibly over 1 million [] Uyghurs are detained in mass detention camps, [] termed " re-education camps ", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.

According to Chinese government operating procedures, the main feature of the camps is to ensure adherence to Chinese Communist Party ideology. Inmates are continuously held captive in the camps for a minimum of 12 months depending on their performance on Chinese ideology tests. In , Human Rights Watch released a report saying "The Chinese government agents should immediately free people held in unlawful 'political education' centers in Xinjiang, and shut them down. In particular, the size of the operation was found to have doubled over The government denied the existence of the camps initially, but then changed their stance to claim that the camps serve to combat terrorism and give vocational training to the Uyghur people.

Media groups have reported that many in the camps were forcibly detained there in rough unhygienic conditions while undergoing political indoctrination. Parallel to the forceful detainment of millions of adults, in alone at least half a million children were also forcefully separated from their families, and placed in pre-school camps with prison-style surveillance systems and 10, volt electric fences.

In , a New York Times article reported that human rights groups and Uyghur activists said that the Chinese government was using technology from US companies and researchers to collect DNA from Uyghurs. They said China was building a comprehensive DNA database to be able to track down Uyghurs who were resisting the re-education campaign. Despite the Western media 's focus on the ongoing repression of the Uyghurs, there have been few sustained protests from Islamic countries against the internment and re-education of the ethnicity by the Chinese Communist Party.

In December , the Organization of Islamic Cooperation OIC initially acknowledged the disturbing reports from the region but the statement was later retracted and replaced by the comment that the OIC "commends the efforts of the People's Republic of China in providing care to its Muslim citizens; and looks forward to further cooperation between the OIC and the People's Republic of China. On July 12, , ambassadors from 50 countries issued a joint letter to the President of the UN Human Rights Council and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights showing their support for China, despite condemnation by several states over the detention of as many as two million Uyghur Muslims. These countries included mainly countries in Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

According to a report by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute ASPI , several Chinese firms were benefitting from the forced labor of Uyghurs, where more than 80 companies across the world were "directly or indirectly benefiting from the use of Uyghur workers outside Xinjiang through abusive labor transfer programs". While the United States and the United Kingdom had imposed restrictions on imports of cotton and other products from China, Japan was pressured to take action, and 12 major Japanese firms established a policy to cease business with the Chinese firms indicated by the ASPI to be using forced labor of Uyghurs.

On July 13, , China decided to take reciprocal measures against US officials and announced sanctions on US lawmakers and an envoy over the issue of Uyghur rights in Xinjiang. On March 8, , the US-based nonpartisan think tank Newlines Institute released what was in their words "the first independent expert application of the Genocide Convention to the ongoing treatment of the Uyghurs in China. While China continued the brutality towards the Uyghur Muslims, citizens of the ethnic minority group began seeking asylum in other nations. However, having good ties with China, these countries began detaining and deporting the Uyghur Muslims back to China.

Authorities in Dubai and other Islamic countries received extradition requests from Beijing, as per which many exiled Uyghurs were detained, separated from their families and deported to China. However, it was the first revelation that the Asian nation operated one of these sites in another country, that is, the UAE. Wu Huan, who was seeking asylum in the Netherlands said she was detained by Chinese officials in Dubai, along with two other Uyghur prisoners. Genealogy keeping is a Han Chinese custom which the Hunan Uyghurs adopted. These Uyghurs were given the surname Jian by the Emperor. Some say that they have assimilated with the Han and do not practice Islam anymore and only their genealogies indicate their Uyghur ancestry.

The Uyghur troops led by Hala were ordered by the Ming Emperor to crush Miao rebellions and were given titles by him. Jian is the predominant surname among the Uyghur in Changde, Hunan. Another group of Uyghur have the surname Sai. Hui and Uyghur have intermarried in the Hunan area. It is reported that they now number around 10, people. The Uyghurs in Changde are not very religious and eat pork. Older Uyghurs disapprove of this, especially elders at the mosques in Changde and they seek to draw them back to Islamic customs. In addition to eating pork, the Uyghurs of Changde Hunan practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves.

Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. Also, the Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language , instead, they speak Chinese [ clarification needed ] as their native language and Arabic for religious reasons at the mosque. The ancient Uyghurs believed in many local deities. These practices gave rise to Shamanism and Tengrism. Uighurs also practiced aspects of Zoroastrianism such as fire altars , and adopted Manichaeism as a state religion for the Uyghur Khaganate, [] possibly in or Ancient Uighurs also practiced Buddhism after they moved to Qocho, and some believed in Church of the East.

Modern Uyghurs are primarily Muslim and they are the second-largest predominantly Muslim ethnicity in China after the Hui. In general, Muslims in the southern region, Kashgar in particular, are more conservative. For example, women wearing the veil a piece of cloth covering the head completely are more common in Kashgar than some other cities. In the early 21st century a new trend of Islam, Salafism , emerged in Xinjiang, mostly among the Turkic population including Uyghurs, although there are Hui Salafis. These Salafis tend to demonstrate pan-Islamism and abandoned nationalism in favor of a desired caliphate to rule Xinjiang in the event of independence from China.

The ancient people of the Tarim Basin originally spoke different languages such as Tocharian , Saka Khotanese , and Gandhari. The Turkic people who moved into the region in the 9th century brought with them their languages, which slowly supplanted the original tongues of the local inhabitants. In the 11th century Mahmud al-Kashgari noted that the Uyghurs of Qocho spoke a pure Turkic language, but they also still spoke another language among themselves and had two different scripts.

He also noted that the people of Khotan did not know Turkic well and had their own language and script Khotanese. The modern Uyghur language is classified under the Karluk branch of the Turkic language family. The Uyghur language is an agglutinative language and has a subject-object-verb word order. It has vowel harmony like other Turkic languages and has noun and verb cases but lacks distinction of gender forms. Modern Uyghurs have adopted a number of scripts for their language. The Arabic script , known as the Chagatay alphabet , was adopted along with Islam.

A new Latin version, the Uyghur Latin alphabet , was also devised in the 21st century. In the s many Uyghurs in parts of Xinjiang could not speak Mandarin Chinese. The literary works of the ancient Uyghurs were mostly translations of Buddhist and Manichaean religious texts, [] but there were also narrative, poetic and epic works apparently original to the Uyghurs. However it is the literature of the Kara-Khanid period that is considered by modern Uyghurs to be the important part of their literary traditions. Sadiq Kashghari. Exiled Uyghur writers and poets, such as Muyesser Abdul'ehed , use literature to highlight the issues facing their community. Muqam is the classical musical style. The 12 Muqams are the national oral epic of the Uyghurs. The muqam system was developed among the Uyghur in northwestern China and Central Asia over approximately the last years from the Arabic maqamat modal system that has led to many musical genres among peoples of Eurasia and North Africa.

Uyghurs have local muqam systems named after the oasis towns of Xinjiang , such as Dolan , Ili , Kumul and Turpan. The most fully developed at this point is the Western Tarim region's 12 muqams, which are now a large canon of music and songs recorded by the traditional performers Turdi Akhun and Omar Akhun among others in the s and edited into a more systematic system. Although the folk performers probably improvized their songs, as in Turkish taksim performances, the present institutional canon is performed as fixed compositions by ensembles.

Amannisa Khan , sometimes called Amanni Shahan — , is credited with collecting and thereby preserving the Twelve Muqam. Sanam is a popular folk dance among the Uyghur people. Sama is a form of group dance for Newruz New Year and other festivals. During the lateth and earlyth centuries, scientific and archaeological expeditions to the region of Xinjiang's Silk Road discovered numerous cave temples, monastery ruins, and wall paintings, as well as miniatures, books, and documents. There are 77 rock-cut caves at the site. Most have rectangular spaces with rounded arch ceilings often divided into four sections, each with a mural of Buddha.

The effect is of an entire ceiling covered with hundreds of Buddha murals. Some ceilings are painted with a large Buddha surrounded by other figures, including Indians, Persians and Europeans. Historically, the education level of Old Uyghur people was higher than the other ethnicities around them. They also introduced the written script for the Mongolian language. In the Islamic era, education was provided by the mosques and madrassas. During the Qing era, Chinese Confucian schools were also set up in Xinjiang [] and in the late 19th century Christian missionary schools. In the late nineteenth and early 20th century, school were often located in mosques and madrassas.

Mosques ran informal schools, known as mektep or maktab , attached to the mosques, [] The maktab provided most of the education and its curriculum was primarily religious and oral. In more recent times, religious education is highly restricted in Xinjiang and the Chinese authority had sought to eradicate any religious school they considered illegal.

Beginning in the early 20th century, secular education became more widespread. Early in the communist era, Uyghurs had a choice of two separate secular school systems, one conducted in their own language and one offering instructions only in Chinese. By , Xinjiang University , originally a bilingual institution, had ceased offering courses in the Uyghur language. From onward, the government policy has been that classes should be conducted in Chinese as much as possible and in some selected regions, instruction in Chinese began in the first grade.

Similar to other traditional medicine, diagnosis is usually made through checking the pulse, symptoms and disease history and then the pharmacist pounds up different dried herbs, making personalized medicines according to the prescription. Modern Uyghur medical hospitals adopted modern medical science and medicine and applied evidence-based pharmaceutical technology to traditional medicines. Historically, Uyghur medical knowledge has contributed to Chinese medicine in terms of medical treatments, medicinal materials and ingredients and symptom detection. Uyghur food shows both Central Asian and Chinese elements. A typical Uyghur dish is polu or pilaf , a dish found throughout Central Asia. In a common version of the Uyghur polu , carrots and mutton or chicken are first fried in oil with onions, then rice and water are added and the whole dish is steamed.

Raisins and dried apricots may also be added. This dish is likely to have originated from the Chinese lamian , but its flavor and preparation method are distinctively Uyghur. A Uyghur-style breakfast consists of tea with home-baked bread, hardened yogurt , olives , honey , raisins and almonds. Uyghurs like to treat guests with tea, naan and fruit before the main dishes are ready. Youtazi is steamed multi-layer bread.

A cake sold by Uyghurs is the traditional Uyghur nut cake. Chapan , a coat and Doppa , a headgear for men, is commonly worn by Uyghurs. In the early 20th century, face covering veils with velvet caps trimmed with otter fur were worn in the streets by Turki women in public in Xinjiang as witnessed by the adventurer Ahmad Kamal in the s. Muslim Turkestani men traditionally cut all the hair off their head. Yengisar is famous for manufacturing Uyghur handcrafted knives. Uyghur men carry such knives as part of their culture to demonstrate the masculinity of the wearer, [] but it has also led to ethnic tension. Most Uyghurs are agriculturists.

This includes the construction and maintenance of underground channels called karez that brings water from the mountains to their fields. A few of the well-known agricultural goods include apples especially from Ghulja , sweet melons from Hami , and grapes from Turpan. However, many Uyghurs are also employed in the mining, manufacturing, cotton, and petrochemical industries. Local handicrafts like rug-weaving and jade-carving are also important to the cottage industry of the Uyghurs. Some Uyghurs have been given jobs through Chinese government affirmative action programs. Since the arrival of Islam most Uyghurs have used "Arabic names", but traditional Uyghur names and names of other origin are still used by some. Others use names with hard-to-understand etymologies, with the majority dating from the Islamic era and being of Arabic or Persian derivation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Turkic ethnic group of Central and East Asia. Uyghur genocide. Uyghurs outside of Xinjiang. Uyghur organizations. Play media. Main article: History of the Uyghur people. Main articles: Uyghur Khaganate and Toquz Oghuz. Main article: Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang. History of Islam in China. Cities Regions. Further information: Xinjiang conflict. Main articles: Xinjiang internment camps and Uyghur genocide.

Main article: Uyghur language. Uyghur folk music with modern influence. Main article: Xinjiang cuisine. The Population section of this article further discusses this dispute. Often the deciding factor for classifying individuals belonging to Turkic nationalities in the Soviet censuses was less what the people called themselves by nationality than what language they claimed as their native tongue. Thus, people who called themselves "Turk" but spoke Uzbek were classified in Soviet censuses as Uzbek by nationality.

Use of the term "Chan Tou Hui" was considered a demeaning slur. All the tribes were scattered — its ministers Sazhi and Pang Tele with fifteen clans fled to the Karluks, the remaining multitude went to Tibet and Anxi. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Canada. Retrieved March 25, Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved February 1, Retrieved July 24, — via sverigesradio. Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved February 10, Archived from the original on February 12, National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.

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Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. May 5, United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Archived from the original PDF on July 5, Retrieved July 5, Some Uyghur groups claim that there are upwards of 20 million Uyghur in China, and nearly 50 million Muslims, with little evidence to support those figures. Archived from the original on December 29, Currently some 20 million Uighurs live in the western Chinese Xinjiang region. Uyghur American Association. Archived from the original on June 19, According to the latest Chinese census, there are about 12 million Uyghurs. However, Uyghur sources indicate that Uyghur population in East Turkistan is about 20 — 30 million. Journal of Medical Virology.

PMC PMID The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, located in western China, has a population of 20 million Uyghur the main ethnic group. World Uyghur Congress. Archived from the original on May 19, Uyghur sources put the real population of Uyghurs around 20 million. Muslim Matters. Archived from the original on May 18, Intercontinental Cry. Archived from the original on May 30, According to some Uyghur activists, the Uyghurs number around 35 million, however official Chinese statistics put them around 12 million, a far cry from what the indigenous Uyghurs claim.

In Starr, S. Frederick ed. Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. Some Uyghur groups go so far as to claim, albeit with scant evidence, that China's population today includes upwards of 20 million Uyghurs ISBN X. Beijing : Contemporary China Publishing House. Beijing : China Statistics Press. Mol Biol Evol. American Journal of Human Genetics. Am J Hum Genet. BMC Genetics. Xinjiang Uyghurs are more genetically related to Chinese population in genetics than to Caucasians. Moreover, there was genetic diversity between Uyghurs from the southern and northern regions. October Molecular Biology and Evolution.

The Uyghurs — strangers in their own land. The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly. Archived from the original on May 24, Archived from the original on March 6, Henders Susan J. Henders ed. Lexington Books. Retrieved September 9, Todd; Raschke, Diana K Narain March In Denis Sinor ed. Xinjiang, China's Muslim Borderland. In Twitchett, Denis ed. Sui and T'ang China, —, Part 1. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. The wide distribution of the Turkic languages from Northwest China, Mongolia and Siberia in the east to Turkey and Bulgaria in the west implies large-scale migrations out of the homeland in Mongolia.

The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion. Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original on May 12, Rhythms Monthly. Archived from the original on January 4, There's a tremendous volume of public opinion now developing against the Japanese of all classes, that is aliens and non-aliens, to get them off the land, and in Southern California around Los Angeles—in that area too—they want and they are bringing pressure on the government to move all the Japanese out. As a matter of fact, it's not being instigated or developed by people who are not thinking but by the best people of California.

Since the publication of the Roberts Report they feel that they are living in the midst of a lot of enemies. They don't trust the Japanese, none of them. DeWitt, who administered the internment program, repeatedly told newspapers that "A Jap 's a Jap" and testified to Congress,. I don't want any of them [persons of Japanese ancestry] here. They are a dangerous element. There is no way to determine their loyalty It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. American citizenship does not necessarily determine loyalty But we must worry about the Japanese all the time until he is wiped off the map.

DeWitt also sought approval to conduct search and seizure operations which were aimed at preventing alien Japanese from making radio transmissions to Japanese ships. The manifesto was backed by the Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West and the California Department of the American Legion , which in January demanded that all Japanese with dual citizenship be placed in concentration camps. Upon the bombing of Pearl Harbor and pursuant to the Alien Enemies Act , Presidential Proclamations , and were issued designating Japanese, German and Italian nationals as enemy aliens. In Hawaii, under the auspices of martial law, both "enemy aliens" and citizens of Japanese and "German" descent were arrested and interned.

Presidential Proclamation codified at 7 Fed. On February 13, the Pacific Coast Congressional subcommittee on aliens and sabotage recommended to the President immediate evacuation of "all persons of Japanese lineage and all others, aliens and citizens alike" who were thought to be dangerous from "strategic areas," further specifying that these included the entire "strategic area" of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Stimson with replying.

Clark , and Colonel Bendetsen decided that General DeWitt should be directed to commence evacuations "to the extent he deemed necessary" to protect vital installations. Executive Order , signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, , authorized military commanders to designate "military areas" at their discretion, "from which any or all persons may be excluded. Unlike the subsequent deportation and incarceration programs that would come to be applied to large numbers of Japanese Americans, detentions and restrictions directly under this Individual Exclusion Program were placed primarily on individuals of German or Italian ancestry, including American citizens.

On March 2, , General John DeWitt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command, publicly announced the creation of two military restricted zones. Military Area No. DeWitt's proclamation informed Japanese Americans they would be required to leave Military Area 1, but stated that they could remain in the second restricted zone. The policy was short-lived; DeWitt issued another proclamation on March 27 that prohibited Japanese Americans from leaving Area 1. Included in the forced removal was Alaska , which, like Hawaii, was an incorporated U. Unlike the rest of the West Coast, Alaska was not subject to any exclusion zones due to its small Japanese population. Nevertheless, the Western Defense Command announced in April that all Japanese people and Americans of Japanese ancestry were to leave the territory for internment camps inland.

By the end of the month, over Japanese residents regardless of citizenship were exiled from Alaska, most of them ended up at the Minidoka War Relocation Center in Southern Idaho. The deportation and incarceration of Japanese Americans was popular among many white farmers who resented the Japanese American farmers. Austin E. We're charged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We do. It's a question of whether the White man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown men. They came into this valley to work, and they stayed to take over If all the Japs were removed tomorrow, we'd never miss them in two weeks because the White farmers can take over and produce everything the Jap grows.

And we do not want them back when the war ends, either. Roosevelt's request, has been cited as an example of the fear and prejudice informing the thinking behind the internment program. I am for the immediate removal of every Japanese on the West Coast to a point deep in the interior. I don't mean a nice part of the interior either. Herd 'em up, pack 'em off, and give 'em the inside room in the badlands Personally, I hate the Japanese. And that goes for all of them. Other California newspapers also embraced this view. According to a Los Angeles Times editorial,.

A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched So, a Japanese American born of Japanese parents, nurtured upon Japanese traditions, living in a transplanted Japanese atmosphere Thus, while it might cause injustice to a few to treat them all as potential enemies, I cannot escape the conclusion State politicians joined the bandwagon that was embraced by Leland Ford of Los Angeles, who demanded that "all Japanese, whether citizens or not, be placed in [inland] concentration camps. Incarceration of Japanese Americans, who provided critical agricultural labor on the West Coast, created a labor shortage which was exacerbated by the induction of many white American laborers into the Armed Forces.

This vacuum precipitated a mass immigration of Mexican workers into the United States to fill these jobs, [66] under the banner of what became known as the Bracero Program. Many Japanese internees were temporarily released from their camps — for instance, to harvest Western beet crops — to address this wartime labor shortage. Like many white American farmers, the white businessmen of Hawaii had their own motives for determining how to deal with the Japanese Americans, but they opposed their internment. Instead, these individuals gained the passage of legislation which enabled them to retain the freedom of the nearly , Japanese Americans who would have otherwise been sent to internment camps which were located in Hawaii.

The powerful businessmen of Hawaii concluded that the imprisonment of such a large proportion of the islands' population would adversely affect the economic prosperity of the territory. Clark , in a Lions Club speech on May 22, , said "Japs live like rats, breed like rats and act like rats. We don't want them Initially, Oregon's governor Charles A. Sprague opposed the internment, and as a result, he decided not to enforce it in the state and he also discouraged residents from harassing their fellow citizens, the Nisei.

He turned against the Japanese by mid-February , days before the executive order was issued, but he later regretted this decision and he attempted to atone for it for the rest of his life. Reaching different conclusions about how the Japanese-American community should be dealt with, both the white farmers of the continental United States and the white businessmen of Hawaii made the protection of their own economic interests a high priority. Even though the internment was a generally popular policy in California, it was not universally supported.

Hoiles , publisher of the Orange County Register , argued during the war that the internment was unethical and unconstitutional:. It would seem that convicting people of disloyalty to our country without having specific evidence against them is too foreign to our way of life and too close akin to the kind of government we are fighting We must realize, as Henry Emerson Fosdick so wisely said, 'Liberty is always dangerous, but it is the safest thing we have. Members of some Christian religious groups, particularly those who had formerly sent missionaries to Japan, were among the most tireless opponents of the internment policy. Some Baptist and Methodist churches, among others, also organized relief efforts to the camps, supplying internees with supplies and information.

The Imperial Japanese Navy had designated the Hawaiian island of Niihau as an uninhabited island for damaged aircraft to land and await rescue. Despite the incident, the Territorial Governor of Hawaii Joseph Poindexter rejected calls for the mass internment of the Japanese Americans living there. Some scholars have criticized or dismissed Lowman's reasoning that "disloyalty" among some individual Japanese Americans could legitimize "incarcerating , people, including infants, the elderly, and the mentally ill". Her book was widely criticized, particularly with regard to her reading of the "Magic" cables. The American public overwhelmingly approved of the Japanese-American internment measures and as a result, they were seldomly opposed, particularly by members of minority groups who felt that they were also being chastised within America.

Morton Grodzins writes that "The sentiment against the Japanese was not far removed from and it was interchangeable with sentiments against Negroes and Jews. This sort of shared experience has led some modern Japanese-American leaders to come out in vocal support of HR , a bill which calls for reparations to be paid to African-Americans because they are affected by slavery and subsequent discrimination. Two similarly oppressed groups, African Americans and Jewish Americans , had already organized to fight discrimination and bigotry. A letter by General DeWitt and Colonel Bendetsen expressing racist bias against Japanese Americans was circulated and then hastily redacted in — DeWitt's final report stated that, because of their race, it was impossible to determine the loyalty of Japanese Americans, thus necessitating internment.

In , a copy of the original Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast — was found in the National Archives , along with notes showing the numerous differences between the original and redacted versions. In the words of Department of Justice officials writing during the war, the justifications were based on "willful historical inaccuracies and intentional falsehoods". In May , U. Solicitor General Neal Katyal , after a year of investigation, found Charles Fahy had intentionally withheld The Ringle Report drafted by the Office of Naval Intelligence, in order to justify the Roosevelt administration's actions in the cases of Hirabayashi v.

United States and Korematsu v. United States. The report would have undermined the administration's position of the military necessity for such action, as it concluded that most Japanese Americans were not a national security threat, and that allegations of communication espionage had been found to be without basis by the FBI and Federal Communications Commission. Editorials from major newspapers at the time were generally supportive of the internment of the Japanese by the United States. A Los Angeles Times editorial dated February 19, , stated that:. Since Dec. Under normal sensible procedure not one day would have elapsed after Pearl Harbor before the government had proceeded to round up and send to interior points all Japanese aliens and their immediate descendants for classification and possible internment.

An Atlanta Constitution editorial dated February 20, , stated that:. The time to stop taking chances with Japanese aliens and Japanese-Americans has come. While Americans have an inate [ sic ] distaste for stringent measures, every one must realize this is a total war, that there are no Americans running loose in Japan or Germany or Italy and there is absolutely no sense in this country running even the slightest risk of a major disaster from enemy groups within the nation.

A Washington Post editorial dated February 22, , stated that:. There is but one way in which to regard the Presidential order empowering the Army to establish "military areas" from which citizens or aliens may be excluded. That is to accept the order as a necessary accompaniment of total defense. A Los Angeles Times editorial dated February 28, , stated that:. As to a considerable number of Japanese, no matter where born, there is unfortunately no doubt whatever. They are for Japan; they will aid Japan in every way possible by espionage, sabotage and other activity; and they need to be restrained for the safety of California and the United States.

And since there is no sure test for loyalty to the United States, all must be restrained. Those truly loyal will understand and make no objection. A Los Angeles Times editorial dated December 8, , stated that:. The Japs in these centers in the United States have been afforded the very best of treatment, together with food and living quarters far better than many of them ever knew before, and a minimum amount of restraint. They have been as well fed as the Army and as well as or better housed. The American people can go without milk and butter, but the Japs will be supplied. A Los Angeles Times editorial dated April 22, , stated that:. As a race, the Japanese have made for themselves a record for conscienceless treachery unsurpassed in history.

Whatever small theoretical advantages there might be in releasing those under restraint in this country would be enormously outweighed by the risks involved. While this event is most commonly called the internment of Japanese Americans, the government operated several different types of camps holding Japanese Americans. Scholars have urged dropping such euphemisms and refer to them as concentration camps and the people as incarcerated.

The government also operated camps for a number of German Americans and Italian Americans , who sometimes were assigned to share facilities with the Japanese Americans. The WCCA Assembly Centers were temporary facilities that were first set up in horse racing tracks, fairgrounds, and other large public meeting places to assemble and organize internees before they were transported to WRA Relocation Centers by truck, bus, or train. The WRA Relocation Centers were semi-permanent camps that housed persons removed from the exclusion zone after March , or until they were able to relocate elsewhere in the United States outside the exclusion zone.

Eight U. The population of these camps included approximately 3, of the 5, Buddhist and Christian ministers, school instructors, newspaper workers, fishermen, and community leaders who had been accused of fifth column activity and arrested by the FBI after Pearl Harbor. The remaining 1, were released to WRA relocation centers. Several U. Army internment camps held Japanese, Italian , and German American men considered "potentially dangerous". In May , the Army was given responsibility for the detention of prisoners of war and all civilian internees were transferred to DOJ camps. Executive Order authorized the removal of all persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast; however, it was signed before there were any facilities completed to house the displaced Japanese Americans.

After the voluntary evacuation program failed to result in many families leaving the exclusion zone, the military took charge of the now-mandatory evacuation. The relocation centers faced opposition from inland communities near the proposed sites who disliked the idea of their new "Jap" neighbors. In addition, government forces were struggling to build what would essentially be self-sufficient towns in very isolated, undeveloped, and harsh regions of the country; they were not prepared to house the influx of over , internees. The stables and livestock areas were cleaned out and hastily converted to living quarters for families of up to six, [] while wood and tarpaper barracks were constructed for additional housing, as well as communal latrines, laundry facilities, and mess halls.

The WCCA was dissolved on March 15, , when it became the War Relocation Authority and turned its attentions to the more permanent relocation centers. Milton S. In the US Government film Japanese Relocation he said, "This picture tells how the mass migration was accomplished. Neither the Army, not the War Relocation Authority relish the idea of taking men, women and children from their homes, their shops and their farms. So, the military and civilian agencies alike, determined to do the job as a democracy should—with real consideration for the people involved. Myer replaced Eisenhower three months later on June 17, Myer served as Director of the WRA until the centers were closed.

Almost 30 crops were harvested at this site by farmworkers. Tule Lake also served as a "segregation center" for individuals and families who were deemed "disloyal", and for those who were to be deported to Japan. There were three types of camps. Civilian Assembly Centers were temporary camps, frequently located at horse tracks, where Japanese Americans were sent after they were removed from their communities. Eventually, most of the Japanese Americans were sent to Relocation Centers, also known as internment camps. Detention camps housed Nikkei who the government considered disruptive as well as Nikkei who the government believed were of special interest. When most of the Assembly Centers closed, they became training camps for US troops.

The Citizen Isolation Centers were for those considered to be problem inmates. Detainees convicted of crimes, usually draft resistance, were sent to these sites, mostly federal prisons: []. These camps often held German and Italian detainees in addition to Japanese Americans: []. These immigration detention stations held the roughly 5, men arrested immediately after Pearl Harbor, in addition to several thousand German and Italian detainees, and served as processing centers from which the men were transferred to DOJ or Army camps: []. Somewhere between , and , people of Japanese ancestry were subject to this mass exclusion program, of whom about 80, Nisei second generation and Sansei third generation were U. Also part of the West Coast removal were orphaned children of Japanese descent taken from orphanages and foster homes within the exclusion zone.

Internees of Japanese descent were first sent to one of 17 temporary "Civilian Assembly Centers", where most awaited transfer to more permanent relocation centers being constructed by the newly formed War Relocation Authority WRA. Some of those who reported to the civilian assembly centers were not sent to relocation centers, but were released under the condition that they remain outside the prohibited zone until the military orders were modified or lifted. Almost , [5] Japanese Americans and resident Japanese aliens were eventually removed from their homes on the West Coast and Southern Arizona as part of the single largest forced relocation in U. The Native American councils disputed the amounts negotiated in absentia by US government authorities.

They later sued to gain relief and additional compensation for some items of dispute. Under the National Student Council Relocation Program supported primarily by the American Friends Service Committee , students of college age were permitted to leave the camps to attend institutions willing to accept students of Japanese ancestry. Although the program initially granted leave permits to a very small number of students, this eventually included 2, students by December 31, In , Secretary of the Interior Harold L.

Ickes wrote "the situation in at least some of the Japanese internment camps is bad and is becoming worse rapidly. INS Camps were regulated by international treaty. The legal difference between interned and relocated had significant effects on those locked up. INS camps were required to provide food quality and housing at the minimum equal to that experienced by the lowest ranked person in the military. According to a War Relocation Authority report, internees were housed in "tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind". The spartan facilities met international laws, but left much to be desired. Many camps were built quickly by civilian contractors during the summer of based on designs for military barracks, making the buildings poorly equipped for cramped family living.

The Heart Mountain War Relocation Center in northwestern Wyoming was a barbed-wire-surrounded enclave with unpartitioned toilets, cots for beds, and a budget of 45 cents daily per capita for food rations. Armed guards were posted at the camps, which were all in remote, desolate areas far from population centers. Internees were typically allowed to stay with their families.

There are documented instances of guards shooting internees who reportedly attempted to walk outside the fences. One such shooting, that of James Wakasa at Topaz, led to a re-evaluation of the security measures in the camps. Some camp administrations eventually allowed relatively free movement outside the marked boundaries of the camps. Nearly a quarter of the internees left the camps to live and work elsewhere in the United States, outside the exclusion zone.

Eventually, some were authorized to return to their hometowns in the exclusion zone under supervision of a sponsoring American family or agency whose loyalty had been assured. The phrase " shikata ga nai " loosely translated as "it cannot be helped" was commonly used to summarize the interned families' resignation to their helplessness throughout these conditions. This was noticed by their children, as mentioned in the well-known memoir Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Further, it is noted that parents may have internalized these emotions to withhold their disappointment and anguish from affecting their children. Nevertheless, children still were cognizant of this emotional repression. Before the war, 87 physicians and surgeons, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, 35 optometrists, and 92 lab technicians provided healthcare to the Japanese American population, with most practicing in urban centers like Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle.

An Issei doctor was appointed to manage each facility, and additional healthcare staff worked under his supervision, although the USPHS recommendation of one physician for every 1, inmates and one nurse to inmates was not met. Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions forced assembly center infirmaries to prioritize inoculations over general care, obstetrics, and surgeries; at Manzanar, for example, hospital staff performed over 40, immunizations against typhoid and smallpox.

Those who were interned in Topaz, Minidoka, and Jerome experienced outbreaks of dysentery. Facilities in the more permanent "relocation centers" eventually surpassed the makeshift assembly center infirmaries, but in many cases, these hospitals were incomplete when inmates began to arrive and were not fully functional for several months. Additionally, vital medical supplies such as medications and surgical and sterilization equipment were limited.

The staff shortages suffered in the assembly centers continued in the WRA camps. When the WRA began to allow some Japanese Americans to leave camp, many Nikkei medical professionals resettled outside the camp. Those who remained had little authority in the administration of the hospitals. Combined with the inequitable payment of salaries between white and Japanese American employees, conflicts arose at several hospitals, and there were two Japanese American walk-outs at Heart Mountain in Despite a shortage of healthcare workers, limited access to equipment, and tension between white administrators and Japanese American staff, these hospitals provided much-needed medical care in camp.

The extreme climates of the remote incarceration sites were hard on infants and elderly prisoners. The frequent dust storms of the high desert locations led to increased cases of asthma and coccidioidomycosis , while the swampy, mosquito-infested Arkansas camps exposed residents to malaria , all of which were treated in camp. Almost 6, live deliveries were performed in these hospitals, and all mothers received pre- and postnatal care.

The WRA recorded 1, deaths across the ten camps, with cancer, heart disease, tuberculosis, and vascular disease accounting for the majority. Allowing them to continue their education, however, did not erase the potential for traumatic experiences during their overall time in the camps. The state decided to issue a few books only a month after the opening. Japanese internment camps also did not have any libraries and consequently no library books , writing arm chairs or desks, and no science equipment. In the Southwest, when temperatures rose and the schoolhouse filled, the rooms would be sweltering and unbearable. At the height of its attendance, the Rohwer Camp of Arkansas reached 2,, with only 45 certified teachers.

One of them was that there was a general teacher shortage in the US at the moment, and the fact that the teachers were required to live in those poor conditions in the camps themselves. The rhetorical curriculum of the schools was based mostly on the study of "the democratic ideal and to discover its many implications". Responses were varied, as schoolchildren of the Topaz camp were patriotic and believed in the war effort, but could not ignore the fact of their incarceration.

A baseball game at Manzanar. Picture by Ansel Adams , c. Smithsonian photo of softball from the Heart Mountain Relocation Center. A tense moment in a football game between the Stockton and Santa Anita teams. A judo class at Rohwer. Classes were held every afternoon and evening. Although life in the camps was very difficult, Japanese Americans formed many different sports teams, including baseball and football teams.

In it Roosevelt said that "baseball provides a recreation", and this was true for Japanese American incarcerees as well. Over baseball teams were formed in the Manzanar camp so that Japanese Americans could have some recreation, and some of the team names were carry-overs from teams formed before the incarceration. Both men and women participated in the sports. In some cases, the Japanese American baseball teams from the camps traveled to outside communities to play other teams. Incarcerees from Idaho competed in the state tournament in , and there were games between the prison guards and the Japanese American teams. In the fall of , three players tried out for the Brooklyn Dodgers in front of MLB scout George Sisler , but none of them made the team.

Although most Nisei college students followed their families into camp, a small number tried to arrange for transfers to schools outside the exclusion zone in order to continue their education. Their initial efforts expanded as sympathetic college administrators and the American Friends Service Committee began to coordinate a larger student relocation program. Outside camp, the students took on the role of "ambassadors of good will", and the NJASRC and WRA promoted this image to soften anti-Japanese prejudice and prepare the public for the resettlement of Japanese Americans in their communities. While this action was controversial in Richmond, Indiana , it helped strengthen the college's ties to Japan and the Japanese-American community.

One of them, Kenji Okuda, was elected as student council president. In early , War Relocation Authority officials, working with the War Department and the Office of Naval Intelligence, [] circulated a questionnaire in an attempt to determine the loyalty of incarcerated Nisei men they hoped to recruit into military service. The "Statement of United States Citizen of Japanese Ancestry" was initially given only to Nisei who were eligible for service or would have been, but for the 4-C classification imposed on them at the start of the war. Authorities soon revised the questionnaire and required all adults in camp to complete the form. Most of the 28 questions were designed to assess the "Americanness" of the respondent — had they been educated in Japan or the U.

Question Are you willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty, wherever ordered? Question Will you swear unqualified allegiances to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any and all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or other foreign government, power or organization? While most camp inmates simply answered "yes" to both questions, several thousand — 17 percent of the total respondents, 20 percent of the Nisei [] — gave negative or qualified replies out of confusion, fear or anger at the wording and implications of the questionnaire.

In regard to Question 27, many worried that expressing a willingness to serve would be equated with volunteering for combat, while others felt insulted at being asked to risk their lives for a country that had imprisoned them and their families. An affirmative answer to Question 28 brought up other issues. Some believed that renouncing their loyalty to Japan would suggest that they had at some point been loyal to Japan and disloyal to the United States. Many believed they were to be deported to Japan no matter how they answered; they feared an explicit disavowal of the Emperor would become known and make such resettlement extremely difficult.

On July 15, , Tule Lake, the site with the highest number of "no" responses to the questionnaire, was designated to house inmates whose answers suggested they were "disloyal". Afterward, the government passed the Renunciation Act of , a law that made it possible for Nisei and Kibei to renounce their American citizenship. At the time, they feared what their futures held were they to remain American, and remain interned. These renunciations of American citizenship have been highly controversial, for a number of reasons. Some apologists for internment have cited the renunciations as evidence that "disloyalty" or anti-Americanism was well represented among the interned peoples, thereby justifying the internment.

Prior to discarding citizenship, most or all of the renunciants had experienced the following misfortunes: forced removal from homes; loss of jobs; government and public assumption of disloyalty to the land of their birth based on race alone; and incarceration in a "segregation center" for "disloyal" ISSEI or NISEI Minoru Kiyota, who was among those who renounced his citizenship and soon came to regret the decision, has said that he wanted only "to express my fury toward the government of the United States", for his internment and for the mental and physical duress, as well as the intimidation, he was made to face. Civil rights attorney Wayne M. Collins successfully challenged most of these renunciations as invalid, owing to the conditions of duress and intimidation under which the government obtained them.

Even among those Issei who had a clear understanding, Question 28 posed an awkward dilemma: Japanese immigrants were denied U. Armed Forces. When the call was made, 10, young men from Hawaii volunteered with eventually 2, being chosen along with 1, from the continental U. This legendary outfit was joined by the nd RCT in June , and this combined unit became the most highly decorated U. Army in Bavaria, liberated at least one of the satellite labor camps of the Nazis' original Dachau concentration camp on April 29, , [] and only days later, on May 2, halted a death march in southern Bavaria.

Many Nisei worked to prove themselves as loyal American citizens. Of the 20, Japanese Americans who served in the Army during World War II , [] "many Japanese-American soldiers had gone to war to fight racism at home" [] and they were "proving with their blood, their limbs, and their bodies that they were truly American". He notes that his mother would tell him, "'you're here in the United States, you need to do well in school, you need to prepare yourself to get a good job when you get out into the larger society'". His story, along with the countless Japanese Americans willing to risk their lives in war, demonstrate the lengths many in their community went to prove their American patriotism. As early as September , with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria , US officials began to compile lists of individuals, lists which were particularly focused on the Issei.

After the Pearl Harbor attack, Roosevelt authorized his attorney general to put into motion a plan for the arrest of thousands of individuals on the potential enemy alien lists, most of them were Japanese-American community leaders. Armed with a blanket arrest warrant, the FBI seized these men on the eve of December 8, These men were held in municipal jails and prisons until they were moved to Department of Justice detention camps, separate from those of the Wartime Relocation Authority WRA. These camps operated under far more stringent conditions and were subject to heightened criminal-style guards, despite the absence of criminal proceedings.

The Canadian government also confined its citizens with Japanese ancestry during World War II see Japanese Canadian internment , for many reasons which were also based on fear and prejudice. Although Japanese Americans in Hawaii comprised more than one-third of Hawaii's population, businessmen resisted their internment or deportation to the concentration camps which were located on the mainland, because they recognized their contributions to Hawaii's economy. An estimated 1, to 1, Japanese nationals and American-born Japanese from Hawaii were interned, either in five camps on the islands or in one of the mainland internment camps, but this represented well-under two percent of the total Japanese American residents in the islands. The vast majority of Japanese Americans and their immigrant parents in Hawaii were not interned because the government had already declared martial law in Hawaii and this allowed it to significantly reduce the supposed risk of espionage and sabotage by residents of Japanese ancestry.

Additionally, the whole of Hawaiian society was dependent on their productivity. According to intelligence reports at the time, "the Japanese, through a concentration of effort in select industries, had achieved a virtual stranglehold on several key sectors of the economy in Hawaii," [] and they "had access to virtually all jobs in the economy, including high-status, high-paying jobs e. Thus, the unfounded fear of Japanese Americans turning against the United States was overcome by the reality-based fear of massive economic loss. Lieutenant General Delos C. Emmons , commander of the Hawaii Department, promised the local Japanese-American community that they would be treated fairly so long as they remained loyal to the United States.

He succeeded in blocking efforts to relocate them to the outer islands or mainland by pointing out the logistical difficulties. A total of five internment camps operated in the territory of Hawaii, referred to as the "Hawaiian Island Detention Camps". This camp was prepared in advance of the war's outbreak. All prisoners held here were "detained under military custody Another Hawaiian camp was the Honouliuli Internment Camp , near Ewa, on the southwestern shore of Oahu; it was opened in to replace the Sand Island camp. Justice Department. They were denied visas by U. Immigration authorities and then detained on the grounds they had tried to enter the country illegally, without a visa or passport.

A total of 2, Japanese Latin Americans, about two-thirds of them from Peru, were interned in facilities on the U. The United States originally intended to trade these Latin American internees as part of a hostage exchange program with Japan and other Axis nations. Over half were Japanese Latin Americans the rest being ethnic Germans and Italians and of that number one-third were Japanese Peruvians. In return, "non-official" Americans secretaries, butlers, cooks, embassy staff workers, etc. The U. Department of State was pleased with the first trade and immediately began to arrange a second exchange of non-officials for February This exchange would involve 1, non-volunteer Japanese who were to be exchanged for 1, Americans.

Further slowing the program were legal and political "turf" battles between the State Department, the Roosevelt administration, and the DOJ, whose officials were not convinced of the legality of the program. Japanese Peruvians were still being "rounded up" for shipment to the U. Despite logistical challenges facing the floundering prisoner exchange program, deportation plans were moving ahead. This is partly explained by an early-in-the-war revelation of the overall goal for Latin Americans of Japanese ancestry under the Enemy Alien Deportation Program.

The goal: that the hemisphere was to be free of Japanese. Although a small number asserting special circumstances, such as marriage to a non-Japanese Peruvian, [] did return, the majority were trapped. Their home country refused to take them back a political stance Peru would maintain until [] , they were generally Spanish speakers in the Anglo US, and in the postwar U. Civil rights attorney Wayne Collins filed injunctions on behalf of the remaining internees, [] [] helping them obtain " parole " relocation to the labor-starved Seabrook Farms in New Jersey.

On December 18, , the Supreme Court handed down two decisions on the legality of the incarceration under Executive Order Korematsu v. United States , a 6—3 decision upholding a Nisei's conviction for violating the military exclusion order, stated that, in general, the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast was constitutional. However, Ex parte Endo unanimously declared on that same day that loyal citizens of the United States, regardless of cultural descent, could not be detained without cause. In effect, the two rulings held that, while the eviction of American citizens in the name of military necessity was legal, the subsequent incarceration was not—thus paving the way for their release.

Having been alerted to the Court's decision, the Roosevelt administration issued Public Proclamation No. Although WRA Director Dillon Myer and others had pushed for an earlier end to the incarceration, the Japanese Americans were not allowed to return to the West Coast until January 2, , being postponed until after the November election, so as not to impede Roosevelt's reelection campaign. For example, 20, were sent to Lake View in Chicago. So when internment ended Japanese Americans not only couldn't return to their homes and businesses but they had little to nothing to survive on, let alone enough to start a new life. Those who had not left by each camp's close date were forcibly removed and sent back to the West Coast. Nine of the ten WRA camps were shut down by the end of , although Tule Lake, which held "renunciants" slated for deportation to Japan, was not closed until March 20, Many internees lost irreplaceable personal property due to restrictions that prohibited them from taking more than they could carry into the camps.

These losses were compounded by theft and destruction of items placed in governmental storage. Leading up to their incarceration, Nikkei were prohibited from leaving the Military Zones or traveling more than 5 miles 8. Many Japanese Americans encountered continued housing injustice after the war. Many had cultivated land for decades as tenant farmers , but they lost their rights to farm those lands when they were forced to leave. Other Issei and Nisei who were renting or had not completed payments on their property had found families willing to occupy their homes or tend their farms during their incarceration. However, those unable to strike a deal with caretakers had to sell their property, often in a matter of days and at great financial loss to predatory land speculators, who made huge profits.

In addition to these monetary and property losses, there were seven who were shot and killed by sentries: Kanesaburo Oshima, 58, during an escape attempt from Fort Sill, Oklahoma; Toshio Kobata, 58, and Hirota Isomura, 59 , during transfer to Lordsburg, New Mexico; James Ito, 17, and Katsuji James Kanegawa, 21, during the December Manzanar Riot ; James Hatsuaki Wakasa, 65, while walking near the perimeter wire of Topaz; and Shoichi James Okamoto, 30, during a verbal altercation with a sentry at the Tule Lake Segregation Center. Psychological injury was observed by Dillon S. Myer , director of the WRA camps. In June , Myer described how the Japanese Americans had grown increasingly depressed, and overcome with feelings of helplessness and personal insecurity.

Japanese Americans also encountered hostility and even violence when they returned to the West Coast. Concentrated largely in rural areas of Central California, there were dozens of reports of gunshots, fires, and explosions aimed at Japanese American homes, businesses, and places of worship, in addition to non-violent crimes like vandalism and the defacing of Japanese graves. In one of the few cases to go to trial, four men were accused of attacking the Doi family of Placer County, California , setting off an explosion, and starting a fire on the family's farm in January Despite a confession from one of the men that implicated the others, the jury accepted their defense attorney's framing of the attack as a justifiable attempt to keep California "a white man's country" and acquitted all four defendants.

To compensate former internees for their property losses, Congress passed the Japanese-American Claims Act on July 2, , allowing Japanese Americans to apply for compensation for property losses which occurred as "a reasonable and natural consequence of the evacuation or exclusion". By the time the Act was passed, the IRS had already destroyed most of the internees' —42 tax records. Due to the time pressure and strict limits on how much they could take to the camps, few were able to preserve detailed tax and financial records during the evacuation process. Therefore, it was extremely difficult for claimants to establish that their claims were valid.

The different placement for the interned had significant consequences for their lifetime outcomes. Beginning in the s, a younger generation of Japanese Americans, inspired by the civil rights movement , began what is known as the "Redress Movement", an effort to obtain an official apology and reparations from the federal government for incarcerating their parents and grandparents during the war. They focused not on documented property losses but on the broader injustice and mental suffering caused by the internment.

The movement's first success was in , when President Gerald Ford proclaimed that the internment was "wrong", and a "national mistake" which "shall never again be repeated". On the battlefield and at home the names of Japanese-Americans have been and continue to be written in history for the sacrifices and the contributions they have made to the well-being and to the security of this, our common Nation. The campaign for redress was launched by Japanese Americans in On February 24, , the commission issued a report entitled Personal Justice Denied , condemning the internment as unjust and motivated by racism and xenophobic ideas rather than factual military necessity.

The Civil Liberties Act of exemplified the Japanese American redress movement that impacted the large debate about the reparation bill. However, four powerful Japanese-American Democrats and Republicans who had war experience, with the support of Democratic congressmen Barney Frank , sponsored the bill and pushed for its passage as their top priority. On August 10, , U. The question of to whom reparations should be given, how much, and even whether monetary reparations were appropriate were subjects of sometimes contentious debate within the Japanese American community and Congress. He issued another formal apology from the U. In remembering, it is important to come to grips with the past.

No nation can fully understand itself or find its place in the world if it does not look with clear eyes at all the glories and disgraces of its past. We in the United States acknowledge such an injustice in our history. The internment of Americans of Japanese ancestry was a great injustice, and it will never be repeated. Under the budget of the United States, Congress authorized that the ten detention sites are to be preserved as historical landmarks: "places like Manzanar, Tule Lake, Heart Mountain, Topaz, Amache, Jerome, and Rohwer will forever stand as reminders that this nation failed in its most sacred duty to protect its citizens against prejudice, greed, and political expediency".

President Bill Clinton awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom , the highest civilian honor in the United States, to Korematsu in , saying, "In the long history of our country's constant search for justice, some names of ordinary citizens stand for millions of souls: Plessy , Brown , Parks The legal term "internment" has been used in regards to the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. This term, however, derives from international conventions regarding the treatment of enemy nationals during wartime and specifically limits internment to those noncitizen enemy nationals who threaten the security of the detaining power.

The internment of selected enemy alien belligerents, as opposed to mass incarceration, is legal both under US and international law. These people were a minority during Japanese incarceration and thus Roger Daniels, emeritus professor of history at the University of Cincinnati, has concluded that this terminology is wrongfully used by any government that wishes to include groups other than the Issei. During World War II, the camps were referred to both as relocation centers and concentration camps by government officials and in the press. Following World War II, other government officials made statements suggesting that the use of the term "relocation center" had been largely euphemistic. In , former Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes wrote "We gave the fancy name of 'relocation centers' to these dust bowls, but they were concentration camps nonetheless.

Truman stated "They were concentration camps. They called it relocation but they put them in concentration camps, and I was against it. We were in a period of emergency, but it was still the wrong thing to do. In subsequent decades, debate has arisen over the terminology used to refer to camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the US government during the war. In , the use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island.

A concentration camp is a place where people are imprisoned not because of any crimes they have committed, but simply because of who they are. Although many groups have been singled out for such persecution throughout history, the term 'concentration camp' was first used at the turn of the [20th] century in the Spanish American and Boer Wars. Nazi camps were places of torture, barbarous medical experiments and summary executions ; some were extermination centers with gas chambers.

Six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Many others, including Gypsies , Poles , homosexuals and political dissidents were also victims of the Nazi concentration camps. In recent years, concentration camps have existed in the former Soviet Union, Cambodia and Bosnia. Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest of society let it happen. The New York Times published an unsigned editorial supporting the use of "concentration camp" in the exhibit.

It's Jewish malpractice to monopolize pain and minimize victims. Harris stated during the controversy, "We have not claimed Jewish exclusivity for the term 'concentration camps. A certain care needs to be exercised. Deborah Schiffrin has written that at the opening of the exhibition, entitled 'America's Concentration Camps: Remembering the Japanese-American experience', 'some Jewish groups' had been offended at the use of the term as after the horrors of the Holocaust some survivors feel an ownership over the semantics. However, Schiffrin also notes that a compromise was reached when an appropriate footnote was added to the exhibit brochure. Department of Defense described the November 9, , dedication of the Memorial: "Drizzling rain was mixed with tears streaming down the faces of Japanese American World War II heroes and those who spent the war years imprisoned in isolated internment camps.

United States Attorney General Janet Reno also spoke at the dedication of the Memorial, where she shared a letter from President Clinton stating: "We are diminished when any American is targeted unfairly because of his or her heritage. This Memorial and the internment sites are powerful reminders that stereotyping, discrimination, hatred and racism have no place in this country. It reminds us of the battles we've fought to overcome our ignorance and prejudice and the meaning of an integrated culture, once pained and torn, now healed and unified. Finally, the monument presents the Japanese American experience as a symbol for all peoples. Dozens of movies were filmed about and in the internment camps; these relate the experiences of interns or were made by former camp interns.

Examples follow. Many books and novels were written by and about Japanese Americans' experience during and after their residence in concentration camps among them can be mentioned the followed:. Several significant legal decisions arose out of Japanese-American internment, relating to the powers of the government to detain citizens in wartime. United States , Yasui v. United States , Hirabayashi v. United States , ex parte Endo , and Korematsu v. United States In Ozawa, the court established that peoples defined as 'white' were specifically of Caucasian descent; In Yasui and Hirabayashi, the court upheld the constitutionality of curfews based on Japanese ancestry; in Korematsu, the court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion order.

In Endo , the court accepted a petition for a writ of habeas corpus and ruled that the WRA had no authority to subject a loyal citizen to its procedures. Korematsu's and Hirabayashi's convictions were vacated in a series of coram nobis cases in the early s. These new court decisions rested on a series of documents recovered from the National Archives showing that the government had altered, suppressed, and withheld important and relevant information from the Supreme Court, including the Final Report by General DeWitt justifying the internment program.

Hawaii upholding a ban on immigration of nationals from several Muslim majority countries but not overruled as it fell outside the case-law applicable to the lawsuit. Clark , who represented the US Department of Justice in the "relocation", writes in the epilogue to the book Executive Order The Internment of , Japanese Americans : []. The truth is—as this deplorable experience proves—that constitutions and laws are not sufficient of themselves Despite the unequivocal language of the Constitution of the United States that the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, and despite the Fifth Amendment's command that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, both of these constitutional safeguards were denied by military action under Executive Order This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Archives and Records Administration.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Japanese American internment. Internment of Japanese Americans in the United States. Further information: History of Japanese Americans. Main article: Niihau Incident. Play media. Main article: Magic cryptography. Senior physics class in barracks F at the temporary high school quarters. Further information: Japanese American redress and court cases. Main category: Japanese-American internees. Main category: Films about the internment of Japanese Americans. For a more comprehensive list, see List of feature films about the Japanese American internment and List of documentary films about the Japanese American internment.

Main category: Books about the internment of Japanese Americans. National Park Service. Retrieved November 30, National Japanese American Historical Society. NBC News. Wyatt, Barbara ed. Washington, DC: U. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original PDF on January 13, Retrieved February 22, See War Relocation Authority This number does not include people held in other camps such as those which were run by the DoJ or the Army. Other sources may give numbers which are slightly more or less than , Howe, Peter J. Frederick, Allen F. Davis, Allan M. Japanese Americans, from Relocation to Redress.

Personal Justice Denied. Washington, D. ISBN Retrieved September 29, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 25, National Archives Catalog. National Archives and Records Administration. February 19,

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