ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership

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ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership

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ISLLC Standards Video

ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models. Lady Macbeth Responsible For Duncans Death Analysis for social justice: Making revolutions in education. Miller, S. This article summarizes single-subject-design intervention studies that include students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3 3difference between subconscious and unconscious Babu, Corruption In Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. Educational research29 2 Thirty-one studies were located in each of Madness In Hamlet Analysis students Lady Macbeth Responsible For Duncans Death Analysis faculty specified the instructional characteristics Quentin Crisp Research Paper considered particularly important to John Deweys Learning Theory And Social Interaction teaching and Love And Sex In The Great Gatsby instruction. Six issues presented assassins creed iii: liberation ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership presentation are 1 The definitional issue 2 The effectiveness issue 3 The domain issue 4 The Saas Subscription Model issue 5 The professional development ISLLC Standard 5: A Key Role In Educational Leadership 6 The system John Deweys Learning Theory And Social Interaction.

Black, P. Assessment and classroom learning. Gaps in educational opportunities persist, and more work is needed to make sure that every child has a fair shot at success. Earlier CEA analysis highlights that gaps in learning outcomes have already emerged at the time of school entry, and they persist or even widen as children progress through school. Black, S. Civil rights data show more work is needed to reduce inequities in K—12 schools.

This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education. Blanton, L. Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. This paper theorizes that variations in learning and the level of learning of students are determined by the students' learning histories and the quality of instruction they receive.

This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed. Bolkan, S. Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education , 66 1 , The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively.

Borba, M. Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership , 76 2 , This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform CSR on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models. Borman, G. Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73 2 , The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of enhanced anchor-instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving problem-solving performance.

Bottge, B. Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes. The Journal of Special Education , 35 4 , The best formative assessment involves both students and teachers in a recursive process. It starts with the teacher, who models the process for the students. At first, the concept of what good work "looks like" belongs to the teacher. The teacher describes, explains, or demonstrates the concepts or skills to be taught, or assigns student investigations—reading assigned material, locating and reading materials to answer a question, doing activities or experiments—to put content into students' hands.

Brookhart, S. This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" third edition , reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K classrooms during , highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. Brophy, J. Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement.

Occasional Paper No. In this article, multiple-baseline across participants designs were used to evaluate the impact of a precision teaching PT program, within a Tier 2 Response to Intervention framework, targeting fluency in foundational reading skills with at risk kindergarten readers. From the outcomes of the multilevel model, PT can be considered as a promising Tier 2 intervention to increase reading fluency with individuals who are at risk of reading failure.

Brosnan, J. Multilevel analysis of multiple-baseline data evaluating precision teaching as an intervention for improving fluency in foundational reading skills for at risk readers. Exceptionality , 26 3 , This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern.

Bruneau, E. Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 8 8 , Methods for Effective Teaching helps teachers with every aspect of their day-to-day responsibilities. Readers learn about everything from planning and choosing the right instructional strategies, to delivering lessons, managing the classroom, disciplining students, assessing progress, and collaborating with colleagues and parents to actively engage students in learning. Numerous features, tables, and lists of recommendations help readers apply concepts and think critically about the decisions they'll have to make in their teaching careers. Burden, P. Methods for effective teaching: Meeting the needs of all students p.

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams PST and response-to-intervention models. Burns, M. Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46 5 , The study investigated the impact of organizational and personality factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one conceptual framework. Byrne, B. Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Educational Research Journal , 31 3 , — Effective teacher professional development is defined as structured professional learning activities which result in changes in teacher practice and improvements in student learning outcomes.

Superintendents face common challenges unique to the rural environment which hinder the delivery of effective teacher professional development in rural school districts. Cadero-Smith, L. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental stud- ies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. Cameron, J. Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational research, 64 3 , In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66 1 , 39— The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues.

Cantor, J. Amazing Results! The first section of this essay provides examples from reading and mathematics curricula that show experts dispensing unproven methods and flitting from one fad to another. The middle section describes how experts, for ideological reasons, have shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy. The following sections show how public impatience has forced other professions to "grow up" and accept accountability and scientific evidence.

The paper concludes with a plea to develop education into a mature profession. Carnine, D. In this article, the author argues convincingly for a view of American's cultural diversity as a self-evident reality - one that must be effectively addressed by inservice and preservice teacher education programmes. Carrington, V. This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse CLD students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda. Cartledge, G. Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.

Exceptional children , 74 3 , Showcasing evidence-based models for schoolwide prevention of reading and behavior problems, this book is highly informative, practical, and grounded in research. Chard, D. Core features of multi-tiered systems of reading and behavioral support. Greenwood, T. Clemens Eds. A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate-related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Chen, G. A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology , 92 2 , — Few issues engender stronger opinions in the American population than education, and the number and complexity of issues continue to grow.

The annual Education Next Survey of Public Opinion examines the opinions of parents and teachers across a wide range of topic areas such as: student performance, common core curriculum, charter schools, school choice, teacher salaries, school spending, school reform, etc. The 12 th Annual Survey was completed in May, Cheng, A. The EdNext poll on school reform. Education Next , 19 1. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity.

Chesebro, J. The development of the teacher clarity short inventory TCSI to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports , 15 3 , This study examined the impact of state receiver apprehension in the instructional context. Because of its negative relationship with information processing effectiveness, receiver apprehension is an experience which can act as a barrier to elective learning. Communication Quarterly , 46 4 , — Recent efforts to attract and retain effective educators and to improve teacher practices have focused on reforming evaluation and compensation systems for teachers and principals. Chiang, H. NCEE At this manual level of analysis, practitioners may choose from a variety of specific treatment programs that have demonstrated their efficacy in research trials.

Chorpita, B. Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice: Misconceptions and clinical examples. To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence.

Choy, S. Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students. This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. Civil Rights Project. Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress. Claessens, B. A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review , 36 2 , — This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual and contextual factors. Clandinin, D. Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning. Teaching Education , 26 1 , The history and the intra-and inter-literature consensus of these two lines of inquiry will be examined in this review.

The purpose is to determine whether the findings and generalizations of those bodies of research can be used conjointly in order to understand how schools strive to change to attain more effective instructional outcomes. Clark, D. Effective schools and school improvement: A comparative analysis of two lines of inquiry. Educational Administration Quarterly , 20 3 , 41— Solid evidence supports claims that motivational programs can increase the quality and quantity of performance from 20 to 40 percent. After describing a number of general strategies for fostering individual motivation, the article focuses on the unique motivational issues faced by teams and how to overcome them.

Clark, R. Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement , 42 3 , 21— Collie, R. School climate and social—emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology , 4 , This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information.

The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC. Collinson, V. Journal of Educational Administration , 39 3 , — This book reviews the evaluation research literature that has accumulated around 19 K mathematics curricula and breaks new ground in framing an ambitious and rigorous approach to curriculum evaluation that has relevance beyond mathematics.

Confrey, J. National Academies Press. The past two decades has seen an explosion of research to guide special educators improve the lives for individuals with disabilities. At the same time society is wrestling with the challenges posed by a post-truth age in which the public is having difficulty discerning what to believe and what to consider as untrustworthy. This paper offers methods to increase confidence through transparency, openness, and reproducibility of the research made available to special educators. To accomplish this the authors propose that researchers in special education adopt emerging open science reforms such as preprints, data and materials sharing, preregistration of studies and analysis plans, and Registered Reports. Cook, B.

In this 26th volume of Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities we address one of the most important educational reforms of recent years evidence-based practices EBPs. Evidence-based practices in learning and behavioral disabilities: The search for effective instruction Vol. Person-centered education is a counseling-originated, educational psychology model, overripe for meta-analysis, that posits that positive teacher-student relationships are associated with optimal, holistic learning. Review of educational research , 77 1 , The author reviewed about 1, articles to synthesize studies from to with 1, findings and , students. Reading comprehension is a critical skill for school success. Struggling readers can benefit from computer-assisted instruction that utilizes components of effective instruction e.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Headsprout Comprehension, a computer-assisted reading program, on the reading comprehension of six elementary students with high-incidence disabilities i. Cullen, J. Improving reading skills of students with disabilities using Headsprout comprehension. Remedial and Special Education , 35 6 , This article describes what communication strategies are and provides an overview of the teachability issue, discussing the arguments for and against strategy instruction, and suggests three possible reasons for the existing controversy.

On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL quarterly , 29 1 , Motivational strategies in the language classroom. This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful. Daniels, A. Bringing out the best in people. The Performance Assessment for California Teachers PACT is an authentic tool for evaluating prospective teachers by examining their abilities to plan, teach, assess, and reflect on instruction in actual classroom practice. The PACT seeks both to measure and develop teacher effectiveness, and this study of its predictive and consequential validity provides information on how well it achieves these goals.

Darling-Hammond, L. Developing and assessing beginning teacher effectiveness: The potential of performance assessments. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability , 25 3 , Few studies have examined factors relating to ineffective school leadership. Such knowledge can help principals refine leadership behaviors and enhance job security. This study used experiences and perceptions from 99 California public school superintendents to examine the reasons why some principals lose their jobs.

Davis, S. Educational Administration Quarterly , 34 1 , 58— Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards.

Deci, E. Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, — Delise, L. Performance Improvement Quarterly , 22 4 , 53— The purpose of this article is to discuss classwide peer tutoring as an effective instructional procedure. The article is organized into three major sections: a general principles of instruction, b description of classwide peer tutoring procedures, and c review of effectiveness data concerning classroom process ie, ecological and behavioral factors and student achievement outcomes.

Delquadri, J. Classwide peer tutoring. Exceptional children, 52 6 , Analysis of the problems, theory, and design of sampling techniques for social scientists, industrial managers, and others who find statistics increasingly important in their work. Only college algebra assumed. Illustrated with dozens of actual large-scale surveys in government and industry. Deming, W. Some theory of sampling. Research shows that the most powerful, in-school influence on learning is the quality of instruction that teachers bring to their students. In the next decade, more than 1.

DeMonte, J. American Institutes for Research. Deno, S. School psychologist as problem solver. Grimes Eds. Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman Eds. Handbook on Innovations in Learning , Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11 1 , Without treatment integrity data, there is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes. Strong teacher education programs acknowledge the importance of a partnership between teacher education and public school faculties and the important role mentor teachers play in the education of student teachers. Studies suggest that mentor teachers trained in supervision are more effective than those who are not. Dever, M. The Teacher Educator , 38 4 , This study reports the results of several meta-analyses examining the relationship between four operational definitions of cognitive ability within teams highest member score, lowest member score, mean score, standard deviation of scores and team performance.

Devine, D. Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance. The authors developed a multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention to produce long-term reductions in implicit race bias. The intervention is based on the premise that implicit bias is like a habit that can be broken through a combination of awareness of implicit bias, concern about the effects of that bias, and the application of strategies to reduce bias. Devine, P. Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 48 6 , — Our schools are troubled with a multiplication of studies, each in turn having its own multiplication of materials and principles.

Our teachers find their tasks made heavier in that they have come to deal with pupils individually and not merely in mass. Unless these steps in advance are to end in distraction, some clew of unity, some principle that makes for simplification, must be found. Dewey, J. How we think. Boston, Mass , Studying teacher workload issues has become somewhat of a trend in recent years with studies having already been completed in most other Canadian provinces. The consistency in teacher workload across the country is remarkable see Appendix 2 , and many of the findings in this study are supported by research in other jurisdictions.

However, this discussion of the findings will deal primarily with the issues in Newfoundland and Labrador. Dibbon, D. This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness.

In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness. Dobbie, W. Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics , 5 4 , By accepting SIG grants states agreed to implement one of four interventions to improve the lowest performing schools: transformation, turnaround, restart, or closure.

The goals of SIG were to improve practices in four main areas: 1 adopting comprehensive instructional reform strategies, 2 developing and increasing teacher and principal effectiveness, 3 increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools, and 4 having operational flexibility and receiving support. The report finds minimal positive effects from the grants and no evidence that SIG had significant impacts on math and reading scores, graduation rates, or increased college enrollment.

Dragoset, L. Mathematica Policy Research. New data and analysis from the National Council on Teacher Quality finds significant progress on the science of reading instruction in teacher preparation. Drake, G. Retrieved from www. The National Council of Teacher Quality NCTQ review examines teacher preparation program progress in adopting the necessary components of evidence-based reading instruction. The report continues the effort of two previous reports offering educators a look at trends on preparation program progress on providing this essential training. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. Dusek, J. The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology , 75 3 , The editors at Education World offer 20 successful classroom management strategies to get your year off to a great start and keep your classroom running smoothly throughout the entire year.

Education World. Effective Instructional Leadership Teams can be integral to helping underperforming schools strengthen their leadership, professional learning systems and core instruction. Edwards, B. Building strong school leadership teams to sustain reform. Leadership, 45 3 , This meta-analysis systematically synthesized results from 26 component studies, including dissertations and published articles, which reported at least one correlation between collective teacher efficacy and school achievement. Eells, R. Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. It has been linked in the literature to school achievement.

The research questions addressed the distribution of effect sizes for the relationship and the moderator variables that could explain any variance found among the studies. Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement Doctoral dissertation, Loyola University Chicago. An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that a detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; b mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and c positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory.

Eisenberger, R. Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist , 51 11 , The authors concluded that early intensive behavioral intervention was associated with large to moderate improvements in IQ intelligence quotient and adaptive behavior in children with autism compared to no intervention or eclectic treatment. Eldevik, S. Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. This research suggests a strong relationship between inference generation and reading comprehension. The study finds inference instruction was effective for increasing general comprehension d 0.

Elleman, A. Journal of Educational Psychology. Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. Management problems continue to be a major cause of teacher burnout and job dissatisfaction. Strangely, despite this enduring concern on the part of educators and the public, few researchers have chosen to focus on classroom management or to identify themselves with this critical field. This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.

Farley, A. The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction. Feldman, K. Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education , 28 4 , The problem was to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning achievement gain in normal public education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.

It is of practical and theoretical importance to know the relationship between class learning and teacher clarity. Fendick, F. The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida. This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning achievement gain in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries. The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis. Ferguson, E. Educational studies , 18 1 , Fixsen, D. Readiness for Change.

Scaling-Up Brief. Number 3. The failure of better science to readily produce better services has led to increasing interest in the science and practice of implementation. The results of recent reviews of implementation literature and best practices are summarized in this article. Core implementation components. Research on social work practice , 19 5 , In the current context, barriers to student attendance and engagement have only increased. Schools and districts are encouraged to emphasize a supportive multi-tiered model for supporting student and staff engagement and attendance rather than punitive attendance or truancy policies.

Freeman, J. Improving Attendance in a Remote Learning Environment. In this article, we explain important features of RTI, why it has been promoted as a substitute for IQ-achievement discrepancy, and what remains to be understood before it may be seen as a valid means of LD identification. Fuchs, D. Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?. Reading research quarterly , 41 1 , This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities LD.

Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse. The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention RTI , "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities. Performance standards for teachers define instructional expectations and inform the individual improvement and criteria for measuring effectiveness. The Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium InTASC , a collaborative of more than 30 states, provides model teacher standards for individual states and districts to use in developing their own performance standards Council of Chief State School Officers, These standards contribute to a rich vision for leadership, teaching, and learning to establish a process of continuous improvement.

See the diagram that demonstrates this relationship on p. Effective teaching emerges from a vision for teaching and learning, an instructional framework, standards for student learning, and performance expectations for educators coupled with a convergence of policy, planning, and goals at the state, school system, and school levels. Educators, policymakers, community members, and decision makers work collaboratively to develop and implement these components that serve as the backbone of effective teaching. Yet without professional learning to support implementation, these components are relegated to words on pages rather than actions in classrooms.

Effective teaching is possible in every classroom by ensuring every educator experiences substantive professional learning within a culture of collaboration and shared accountability. Effectiveness in teaching is a journey, rather than a destination. Each year, teachers experience new challenges to refine and expand their teaching practices. Each year, teachers face new students with different learning needs.

They strive to implement new technologies in their classrooms to accelerate learning. Benchmarks for student learning continue to change. New research on effective instruction is released. New colleagues and leaders join the faculty to support teaching practice and student learning. Systems of professional learning are the only way to ensure these challenges become opportunities to improve student and educator performance. Absent professional learning, teachers lack access to the information and support they need to refine and enrich teaching throughout their career.

At each stage along the career continuum, effective teaching broadens from the core elements of teaching to include expanded responsibilities of a master or mentor teacher whose work includes supporting peers and assuming leadership roles within their schools and beyond that focus on improving student learning. Professional learning is the only strategy in school systems that moves the vision, instructional framework, standards for students, and standards for educators into action. Effective professional learning for effective teaching has seven core attributes, which Learning Forward has defined as Standards for Professional Learning. See the full list of the Standards for Professional Learning below.

A common attribute of effective schools is collaboration among educators. Engagement in one or more learning communities provides teachers opportunities to moderate their practice and expectations with their peers, to examine and reflect on their work together, to learn from one another, to challenge one another professionally, and to solve complex problems within the context of their unique work environment. Students benefit when teachers learn from peers. Effective teaching and student learning are the benefits that spread from classroom to classroom and even from school to school.

Effective teaching requires skillful leadership to build capacity and structures to support learning. Leaders, both administrators and teachers, advocate professional learning as a key lever for continuous improvement of teaching and student results. While individual teachers may engage in professional learning aligned to their professional goals, universal effectiveness in teaching depends on making it a priority within a school or school system, creating a culture and systems to support it, and developing teacher leaders to skillfully facilitate collaborative learning.

In addition to leadership, successful schools and school systems invest resources to support effective teaching. Some of these resources include time for professional learning and collaboration, classroomand school-based support in the form of coaching, technology to seek information, models, networks, and research, and access to external experts who provide specialized knowledge and skill development when the needed expertise is unavailable within the school or district.

The effects of these resource investments can be measured in increased student achievement. Measures of increased effectiveness in teaching and student achievement depend on the use of formative and summative assessments that provide data about teaching performance and student achievement. These data plus data gleaned from examining student work and engagement, individual and collaborative teacher reflection, coaching, and other forms of peer interactions provide both informal and formal data the inform decisions related to improving teaching. These data also provide information to link results for students with changes in teaching practices. Funds of knowledge and culturally responsive leadership transforming a failing school in a postcolonial border context.

Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership 15 3 : Compelling case-study in an Indigenous setting with a moral dilemma at center connecting seminal culturally responsive theory to practice for students and practitioners to consider. Gooden, Mark A. Centering race in a framework for leadership preparation. Journal of Research on Leadership Education 7 2 : Important article to address race as a framework within a broader context of educational leadership promoting social justice including five components of such a framework designed to assist leadership preparation programs to challenge and interrogate the notions of privilege and race in their programs. Jean-Marie, Gaetane, Anthony H.

Normore, and Jeffrey S. Leadership for social justice: Preparing 21st century school leaders for a new social order. Journal of Research on Leadership Education 4 1 : Readers are introduced to leadership for social justice by leaders in the field who extend the scholarship on the topic to leadership preparation for social justice for both research and practice on national and international levels. Johnson, Lauri. Rethinking successful school leadership in challenging US schools: Culturally responsive practices in school-community relationships.

International Studies in Educational Administration 35 3 : Marshall, Catherine, and Maricela Oliva, eds. Leadership for social justice: Making revolutions in education. Robinson, Viviane M. Lloyd, and Kenneth J. The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44 5 : Meta-analysis examined relative impact of different types of leadership on students' academic and nonacademic outcomes. Comparisons between transformational and instructional leadership suggested the more leaders focus relationships, work, and learning on the core business of teaching and learning, the greater their influence on student outcomes.

Critical change for the greater good: Multicultural perceptions in educational leadership towards social justice and equity. Education Administration Quarterly, 50 3 : Educational leadership for social justice and equity is primary leadership response to inclusive and equitable education. Inquiry builds on multicultural education and educational leadership to explore alternative approach to mainstream leadership practice examining ways in which educational leaders tap into positive attributes of their identities to address issues germane to equity in schools.

Timperley, Helen. Distributed leadership: Developing theory from practice. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37 4 : Summarizes the notion that leadership as distributed across multiple people and situations has proven to be a more useful framework for understanding the realities of schools and how they might be improved. Challenge some key concepts presented in earlier theorizing about leadership and its distribution. Theoharis, George. Social justice educational leaders and resistance: Toward a theory of social justice leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly 43 2 : Leading author in the field develops a theory of this social justice educational leadership and presents research on leaders for social justice guiding schools to challenge status quo leadership practices by transforming the culture, curriculum, pedagogical practices, atmosphere, and school wide priorities to benefit marginalized students.

Large Data Sets and Empirical Evidence It is clear from this bibliography, over time theories of educational leadership have become divergent and are sometimes inconsistent with overlapping definitions. The conglomeration of traits, behavioral, situational, power influential and transformational aspects including managerial aspects of the field render the topic unwieldy at times see Brungardt, These inherent complexities have resulted in a number of case and qualitative studies focused on theories of educational leadership.

To this end, the inclusion of research featuring larger data sets and research using meta-analysis will be useful to students and leaders seeking empirical data to further explore leadership theories in education. These authors seek to determine effectiveness of these particular styles. Sometimes, as in the case of Robinson and Timperley , scholars are looking to establish connections between instructional or pedagogical leadership and educational outcomes. Being familiar with this work is imperative for readers interested in leadership impact on student learning.

Diversity in theories related to educational leadership is inclusive of the different spaces, levels, or sectors education can take place including early childhood centers, primary, secondary, intermediate and secondary contexts. Bryman considers higher education in his comprehensive review of literature on leadership in the academy. In their work on distributed leadership Woods, Bennett, Harvey, and Wise demonstrate ways in which a literature review functions in this way and at the same time illustrates how leadership traits as theoretical constructs are interwoven in every aspect of the field.

Consideration of the literature presented in this section makes clear the case for further exploration of complementary, diverse, and alternative perspectives of theories of educational leadership in order to further balance more prevalent and mainstream ideations of the discipline. Brungardt, Curt. The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education. Offers an overview of about ninety articles on research in leadership development and preparation for aspiring leaders.

This good introductory read for those new to the field includes a distinction between leadership development and education within which current theory-building efforts are featured. Bryman, Alan. Effective leadership in higher education: A literature review. Studies in Higher Education 32 6 : Article with a review of literature on leadership effectiveness in higher education at departmental levels. A popular must-read for those studying leadership in higher education. Hallinger, Philip. Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership.

Cambridge Journal of education 33 3 : Well-cited review by leader in the field of the conceptual and empirical development of instructional leadership and transformational leadership. Includes an evolving response to the changing needs of schools in the context of global educational reforms. Lowe, Kevin B. Galen Kroeck, and Nagaraj Sivasubramaniam. Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. The Leadership Quarterly 7 3 : The quintessential large-data empirical quantitative study on effectiveness of transformational leadership literature making use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire MLQ to integrate the diverse findings, compute an average effect for different leadership scales, and probe for moderators of the leadership style-effectiveness relationship.

Riehl, Carolyn J. The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research 70 1 : Expansive review explores role school administrators take in their response to the needs of diverse students. The leadership of the improvement teaching and learning: Lessons from initiatives with positive outcomes for students. Australian Journal of Education, 51 3 : Features a study by leading scholars that examined ways in which leaders foster school renewal by facilitating and participating in teacher professional learning and development to improve student academic and non-academic outcomes.

Witziers, Bob, Roel J. Bosker, and Meta L. Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association. Educational Administration Quarterly 39 3 : Confirming the non-existence of a silver-bullet approach to academic achievement, this article revisits existing scholarly literature on the impact of principal leadership on student achievement with a quantitative meta-analysis examining the extent to which principals directly affect student outcomes. Woods, Philip A. Harvey, and Christine Wise. Variabilities and dualities in distributed leadership findings from a systematic literature review. Features the distinction between structure and agency as a means of illuminating distributed leadership as both a concept and a practice.

Complementary, Diverse, and Alternative Perspectives Within theories of educational leadership there is a richness of emergent perspectives and ways of thinking in a variety of teaching and learning contexts. These complementary, diverse, and subaltern viewpoints comprise traits, processes and different methods to conceptualize and enact theories that are largely outside mainstream ways of thinking about educational leadership, purposely delinking from ideations of management. Though at times they juxtapose traits, styles, and process, these kinds of theories are largely unlike those considered in previous sections of this bibliography. Conceptualizations and approaches such as these tend to critically push beyond those previously considered.

Here for example, are strong themes in education prevalent in the U. Some of these scholars, like Brown and Horsford, , suggest new models for leadership preparation advancing issues of equity, engagement, and excellence. Similarly, Galloway and Ishimaru propose leaders utilize updated leadership standards with equity at the core of educational practices while scholars such as Hohepa and Robinson, and Walker and Riordan, offer asset-based culturally responsive and sustainable ways of leading. The philosophical ideals associated with diversity are complex and importantly refer to different kinds of leadership in a variety of learning environments. These ways of thinking include and extend beyond cultural, linguistic, gender, class, and ability diversity.

Additionally, there are researchers who theorize about school leadership with regard to social networks and communication. In their work, Daly and Finnigan investigate ways social networks can be studied in relation to educational change, whereas Datnow another prominent scholar links theory to reform, policy, and educational outcomes. These scholars and others who study change and school reform in leadership contexts, offer alternative ways of thinking about leadership that complement prominent theories in important ways.

Other researchers, such as Indigenous scholars like Hohepa, , who have been historically marginalized by institutional exclusionary practices add a decolonization as a lens to consider in the field. These perspectives further reflect the rich and dynamic nature of emergent theories of educational leadership. Distinctly international perspectives offer more ways to consider the discipline for a well-rounded view of the theories featured.

Allred, Keith W. Reconciling leadership and partnership: Strategies to empower professionals and families. YC: Young Children 70 2 : Practical strategies for supporting and promoting leadership and partnerships between early care and education professionals and families in childhood development and learning programs. Includes applications of servant leadership. Brown, M. Horsford, Sonya. Leadership matters: advancing issues of equity, engagement, and excellence in the study of educational leadership. Journal of School Leadership 21 4 , Focus on leadership preparation by way of introduction to a special issue asserting that research on educational leadership affirms leadership matters and sets the scope, structure, and sequence of student learning and academic programmatic delivery.

Daly, Alan J. A bridge between worlds: Understanding network structure to understand change strategy. Journal of Educational Change 11 2 : Datnow, Amanda. The sustainability of comprehensive school reform models in changing district and state contexts. Educational Administration Quarterly 41 1 : Excellent empirical research article and writing exemplar for aspiring educational leaders drawing on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district in the U. Galloway, Mollie K. Radical recentering equity in educational leadership standards.

Educational Administration Quarterly 51 3 : Hohepa, Margie Kahukura. Educational leadership and Indigeneity: Doing things the same, differently. American Journal of Education 4 : This article has implications for Indigenous leadership in countries and contexts where Indigenous learners are present e. Hohepa, Margie Kahukura, and Viviane M. Khalifa, Muhammad. A re-new-ed paradigm in successful urban school leadership principal as community leader. Educational Administration Quarterly 48 3 : Important contribution revealing the importance of leader-community relationship.

Culturally responsive leadership in higher education: Promoting access, equity, and improvement. Provides subaltern and multiple perspectives from practicing educational leaders in higher educational contexts in the U. Walker, Allan, and Geoff Riordan. Leading collective capacity in culturally diverse schools. School Leadership and Management 30 1 : Article in which authors present ways in which school leaders position themselves within the school's cultural context; structure distributed leadership; work collaboratively; provide space for cultural understandings, and work to avoid stereotyping and essentialising.

Critical, Global, and International Applications The context driven and specific nature of theories previously featured in this bibliography provide a foundation for a more thorough and representative international consideration of theories of educational leadership. Contributions in this comprehensive category include style and approach orientations to theories, the identification of universal aspects, as well as considerations that are critical in theoretical nature. With regard to universal phenomena, Bainbridge and Thomas write about academic achievement gaps being a constant and pervasive challenge facing every nation in the world.

These global observations are echoed and expanded in an article by Walker and Quong in which they urge leaders to challenge conformity and become open to learning from differences associated with an increasingly diverse world. These cases are relevant for leadership theories in education in a world becoming more intimate due to ongoing developments in information technology, mobility, and immigration. Some of the work on theories of educational leadership in international contexts is country specific or comparative while also making connections to wider educational leadership concepts like school reform.

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