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The sole object of this work is to consider, firstly, whether man, like every other species, is descended from some pre-existing form; secondly, the manner of his development; and thirdly, the value of the differences between the so-called races of man. If this work had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it. Almost all the conclusions at which I have arrived I find confirmed by this naturalist, whose knowledge on many points is much fuller than mine. By Ernst Haeckel.
Translated from the German book entitled Anthropogenie , which was first published in Many tribes, however, among the lower races of men, especially many negro tribes, use the foot in the same way as the hand. Translated by E. Ray Lankester. The first edition was in Their skin is velvety to the touch, and characterized by a peculiar offensive exhalation. The lowest stage of all straight-haired men, and on the whole perhaps all of the still living human species, is occupied by the Australian , or Austral-negro Homo Australis. This species seems to be exclusively confined to the large island of Australia; it resembles the genuine African Negro by its black or brownish black hair, and the offensive smell of the skin, by its very slanting teeth and long-headed form of the skull, the receding forehead, broad nose, protruding lips, and also by the entire absence of calves.
The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man Homo Mediterraneus , has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Muller, namely, that of Mediterranese.
In bodily as well as in mental qualities, no other human species can equal the Mediterranean. This species alone with the exception of the Mongolian has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilization which seems to raise man above the rest of nature. Journal of the History of Biology , September 1, It also incorporated progressive ideologies about the purposes of compulsory public education in shaping society, and civic biology was fundamentally focused on the applications of the life sciences to human life.
With most schools adopting books every few years, by the end of the decade it was the best-selling biology book even securing adoption in Boston. In the textbook industry, success led to imitation and other publishers brought out textbooks that similarly reorganized biology around social principles. BioScience , September Hunter made clear his view that evolution was a reality; he used the word evolution, and credited the theory of evolution to Darwin. The textbook by Hunter, a former biology teacher, was the state-approved text in Tennessee high schools Dayton schools had used the book since By George W.
American Book Company, At the present time there exist upon the earth five races or varieties of man, each very different from each other in instincts, social customs, and, to an extent, in structure. There are the Ethiopian or negro type, originating in Africa; the Malay or brown race, from the islands of the Pacific; the American Indian; the Mongolian or yellow race, including the natives of China, Japan and the Eskimos; and finally, the highest type of all, the Caucasians, represented by the civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America.
By Carl C. Foreword by Robert M. Princeton University Press, The essential point is that there are 10,, negroes here now and that the proportion of mulattoes to a thousand blacks has increased with alarming rapidity since According to all evidence available, then, American intelligence is declining, and will proceed with an accelerating rate as the racial admixture becomes more and more extensive.
The decline of American intelligence will be more rapid than the decline of the intelligence of European national groups, owing to the presence here of the negro. These are the plain, if somewhat ugly, facts that our study shows. The deterioration of American intelligence is not inevitable, however, if public action can be aroused to prevent it. There is no reason why legal steps should not be taken which would insure a continuously progressive upward evolution.
Pages 9— Much of this literature is situated in the disciplines of psychology and psychometrics, and in related fields like criminology and economics. These studies claim that sub-Saharan African populations have, on average, very low intelligence, such that the average intellectual level on the continent would be one of severe cognitive challenge MacEachern Some of this work has involved straightforward applications of medical science and evolutionary psychology that somehow manage to evade or ignore without questioning the issue of whether the continent of Africa is really inhabited by people so much less intelligent than those living in other parts of the world cf.
Eppig and others ; Daniels and Ostoni Other research work toward more deliberately ideological ends, seeking to prove that Africans are less culturally advanced, more violent and indeed less evolved in both the evolutionary and the intellectual sense than are any other human continental populations Itzkol ; Rushton , a; Kanazawa ; Lynn ; Templer ; Wrigh ; Lynn and Vanhanen Such work often makes vulgarized appeals to the concept of the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, claiming that the evolution of humans in Africa renders modern Africans less fit for life in the modern world—an ironic reversal of early twentieth-century disbelief that our species, Homo sapiens, could have originated on a continent as benighted as Africa.
The evidentiary basis of these research programmes is extremely poor Lieberman ; Graves ; Peregrine and others ; MacEachern ; Dickens and others ; Wicherts and others , and indeed open to parody Westling , but a number of these studies have been widely quoted and have proven to be extremely popular in public discourse. Closer to archaeology, mass-market books like The 10, Year Explosion Cochran and Harpending assume throughout that Africans as well as a number of other aboriginal populations have been left behind culturally and evolutionarily in the course of recent human evolutionary adaptation.
Unsurprisingly, both authors are sympathetic to Philippe Rushton and other believers in the evolutionary and cultural inferiority of Africans. Such work often makes vulgarized appeals to the concept of the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, claiming that the evolution of humans in Africa renders modern Africans less fit for life in the modem world…. By Isaac Taylor.
Haskell House, First published in The Italians of that age needed only to receive this kind of direction, and to be aided by these means of study; for they had for some time been placed under those peculiar circumstances which have ever proved the most favorable to the advancement of the human mind. Throughout a number of independent states—crowded upon a narrow space, the same language, yet diversified by dialects, was spoken.
The energy, the rivalry, the munificence that accompany an active commerce kept the whole mass of society in movement…. Jewish Word Review, April 23, On the contrary, people in such places have almost invariably lagged behind the progress in the rest of the world—including people of the very same race living on the plains below. Mountaineers were long noted for their poverty and backwardness in countries around the world, especially in the millennia before modern transportation and communication eased their isolation. People geographically isolated on islands far from the nearest mainland or people isolated by deserts or other geographic features have likewise seldom kept up with the progress of others.
Again, this was especially so before modern transportation and communication put them more in touch with the rest of the world. Conversely, urbanized peoples have often been in the vanguard of progress, producing far more of the historic advances of the human race than a similar number of people scattered out in the hinterlands—even when both were of the same race. Geography has been a factor in this as well, since not all geographic areas are equally suitable for building big cities.
The overwhelming majority of cities have been built on navigable waterways, for example—and not all regions have navigable waterways available. Isolation can be man-made, as well as created by nature. Centuries ago, when China was the most advanced nation in the world, its leaders decided to isolate the country from other peoples, all of whom they regarded as barbarians. After a few centuries of isolation, China was shocked to find itself overtaken by others, and to some extent at the mercy of those others. Waterways were the most efficient transport systems available and cities next to rivers were able to trade over longer distances and maintain political, economic and cultural cohesion over a larger territory.
It is not surprising to find that the first civilizations emerged along river systems for agricultural but also for trading purposes Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, Indus, Ganges, Huang He. Taylor and Francis, Communications by land were based entirely on animal and human power. One of the greatest transport innovations of the pre-colonial era was the introduction of the camel.
This extraordinary animal was the principal means of transport in the desert for almost two thousand years. It was present in North Africa in the first century B. The camel was more efficient in desert conditions than were horses and oxen, which had been used previously, and its supremacy remained unchallenged until the coming of the motor car in the s. Water transport was used where possible, for it was known to be the cheapest means of transporting bulky commodities over long distances.
However, many West African rivers were hard to navigate: a number had dangerous rapids; some were flooded during the rainy season; and others lacked water in the dry season. Foodstuffs and other items of everyday use could rarely be transported far beyond the area of production by any means of carriage. The case of Timbuctu is an exception which proves the rule, for the city was able to use the relatively cheap Niger route and could also pay for imported supplies from foreign trade earnings.
Even so, in the nineteenth century the price of imported cloth at Timbuctu was two to three and a half times as great as it was on the coast. Kola nuts, which today are common items of consumption, were a luxury enjoyed by the relatively wealthy in the pre-colonial period. In the late nineteenth century one kola nut bought at Gonja, in the area of production, for five cowries sold for — cowries by the time it reached Lake Chad about 1, miles away.
In two areas of West Africa environmental circumstances meant that there was little scope for wheeled transport. On the sand and rock of the Sahara the camel was a more efficient means of carriage, so much so that it replaced the wheel at an early date. In the forest the difficulty of keeping draught animals greatly reduced the value of wheeled vehicles. In the Western Sudan, however, both horses and oxen were present, and wheeled transport would have been possible. The problem in this case was that the gain from greater traction would have been nullified by the capital and maintenance costs of carts, wagons and draught animals, and by the slower rate of progress of wheeled vehicles.
Since draught animals were not used on the farm, the cost of keeping them solely for transport purposes during the dry season was much higher than in other parts of the world, where there was scope for combining the two functions. Williams Ph. Jewish Word Review, August 26, Thomas Sowell, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, must write with both hands. His most recent book, the last of a trilogy, Conquests and Cultures , is a masterpiece of research and thought.
Africa is more than twice the size of Europe, but it has a shorter coastline. The European coastline constantly twists and turns, creating innumerable natural harbors, while the African coastline is smooth, with few harbors. Sowell asks how surprising it should be that international trade has played a smaller role in the economic history of Africa than of Europe, especially Western Europe. Less trade produces more isolation.
No great civilization developed in isolation. Historically, large cities, as economic centers, emerged along navigable rivers and harbors. Historically, water has been the cheapest way to ship goods. During the s, it was cheaper to ship a ton of goods from London to Philadelphia than from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pa. In Western Europe and the United States, there are navigable rivers gently flowing hundreds of miles, connecting wide areas both culturally and economically.
The rivers of tropical Africa plunge a 1, feet or more on their way to the sea, with waterfalls and cascades making them navigable for only tiny distances. In Western Europe and the United States, regular rainfall and melting snows keep rivers flowing year round, but Africa has neither, so rivers rise and fall dramatically, further limiting their usefulness. Geographical disparities may be suggestive of the many ways that physical settings have restricted the cultural universe available to different peoples.
Last updated August 24, Korea had a very large slave population, ranging from a third to half of the entire population for most of the millennium between the Silla period and the midth century. The institution was little documented until the British colonials in the 19th century made it an object of study because of their desire to abolish it. Slavery was widely practiced in other areas of Asia as well.
A quarter to a third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma Myanmar were slaves in the 17th through the 19th centuries and in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, respectively. Other societies in the Philippines, Nepal, Malaya, Indonesia, and Japan are known to have had slavery from ancient until fairly recent times. The same was true among the various peoples inhabiting the regions of Central Asia: the peoples of Sogdiana, Khorezm, and other advanced civilizations; the Mongols, the Kalmyks, the Kazakhs; and the numerous Turkic peoples, most of whom converted to Islam.
In England about 10 percent of the population entered in the Domesday Book in were slaves, with the proportion reaching as much as 20 percent in some places. Slaves were also prominent in Scandinavia during the Viking era, — BCE, when slaves for use at home and for sale in the international slave markets were a major object of raids. Slaves also were present in significant numbers in Scandinavia both before and after the Viking era. Slavery was much in evidence in the Middle East from the beginning of recorded history.
Slaves were owned in all Islamic societies, both sedentary and nomadic, ranging from Arabia in the centre to North Africa in the west and to what is now Pakistan and Indonesia in the east. Slaves have been owned in black Africa throughout recorded history. In many areas there were large-scale slave societies, while in others there were slave-owning societies. Slavery was practiced everywhere even before the rise of Islam, and black slaves exported from Africa were widely traded throughout the Islamic world. Economic History. Thomson Gale, One stormy day in August of a Dutch man-of-war with about 20 Africans on board entered port at the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia.
Little is known of these newly arrived people: the first Africans to set foot on the North American continent. At this time the slave trade between Africa and the English colonies had not yet been established, and it is unlikely that the 20 or so newcomers became slaves upon their arrival. They were perhaps considered indentured servants, who worked under contract for a certain period of time usually seven years before they were granted freedom and the rights accorded to other settlers. The social status of the first Africans in Jamestown was confusing, and perhaps deliberately ambiguous. Records from and list the black inhabitants of the colony as servants, not slaves. In these same records, however, white indentured servants are listed along with the year in which they were to attain freedom; no such year accompanies the names of black servants.
Freedom was the birthright of William Tucker, the first African born in the colonies. Yet court records show that at least one African had been declared a slave by , the year that slavery was officially instituted in Jamestown. After the legalization of slavery by the Virginia colony, the African population began to rise slowly and steadily. The number of blacks increased from 23 in to approximately three hundred in By Jonathan Earle. The transition to slave labor from labor performed by free people and indentured servants was a complex one, and spanned most of the 17th century. Virginia settlers had enslaved local Indians as early as , but gave up the practice in the face of massive Indian raids and attacks.
The switch to African, perpetual, race-based slavery was slow: there were only 1, Africans in North America in , with almost a third of them in Dutch New York. During the next four decades slavery was explicitly legalized in Massachusetts , Connecticut , Virginia , Maryland , New York , and South Carolina The remaining colonies of British North America legalized slavery in the early 18th century. The term most specifically refers to the bodies that met in and —81 and respectively designated as the First Continental Congress and the Second Continental Congress. The First Continental Congress, convened in response to the Acts by the colonial Committees of Correspondence, met in Philadelphia on September 5, Fifty-six deputies represented all the colonies except Georgia.
Meeting in secret session, the body rejected a plan for reconciling British authority with colonial freedom. Instead, it adopted a declaration of personal rights, including life, liberty, property, assembly, and trial by jury. The declaration also denounced taxation without representation and the maintenance of the British army in the colonies without their consent.
Parliamentary regulation of American commerce, however, was willingly accepted. Library of Congress. In prosecution of which system, various acts of parliament have been passed, for raising a revenue in America, for depriving the American subjects, in many instances, of the constitutional trial by jury, exposing their lives to danger, by directing a new and illegal trial beyond the seas, for crimes alleged to have been committed in America: and in prosecution of the same system, several late, cruel, and oppressive acts have been passed, respecting the town of Boston and the Massachusetts-Bay, and also an act for extending the province of Quebec, so as to border on the western frontiers of these colonies, establishing an arbitrary government therein, and discouraging the settlement of British subjects in that wide extended country; thus, by the influence of civil principles and ancient prejudices, to dispose the inhabitants to act with hostility against the free Protestant colonies, whenever a wicked ministry shall chuse so to direct them.
We will neither import nor purchase, any slave imported after the first day of December next; after which time, we will wholly discontinue the slave trade, and will neither be concerned in it ourselves, nor will we hire our vessels, nor sell our commodities or manufactures to those who are concerned in it. That a committee be chosen in every county, city, and town, by those who are qualified to vote for representatives in the legislature, whose business it shall be attentively to observe the conduct of all persons touching this association; and when it shall be made to appear, to the satisfaction of a majority of any such committee, that any person within the limits of their appointment has violated this association, that such majority do forthwith cause the truth of the case to be published in the gazette; to the end, that all such foes to the rights of British-America may be publicly known, and universally contemned as the enemies of American liberty; and thenceforth we respectively will break off all dealings with him or her.
And we do further agree and resolve, that we will have no trade, commerce, dealings or intercourse whatsoever, with any colony or province, in North-America, which shall not accede to, or which shall hereafter violate this association, but will hold them as unworthy of the rights of freemen, and as inimical to the liberties of their country. Second Continental Congress, July 4, We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Supreme Court, January 18, Decided 5—3. No duty rests more imperatively upon the courts than the enforcement of those constitutional provisions intended to secure that equality of rights which is the foundation of free government. Edited by Charlton T. Pennsylvania abolished slavery by gradual emancipation, ; Massachusetts by a Bill of Rights prefixed to the constitution, ; New Hampshire by her constitution, ; Connecticut and Rhode Island, ; Vermont by her constitution; New York by gradual abolition, ; further legislation in decreed total abolition after 4 July, , when about 10, slaves were liberated; New Jersey, gradual abolition, In August , the Slave Emancipation Act was passed, giving all slaves in the British empire their freedom, albeit after a set period of years.
In contrast, enslaved people received no compensation and continued to face much hardship. They remained landless, and the wages offered on the plantations after emancipation were extremely low. The Act did not come into force until 1 August The first step was the freeing of all children under six. However, although the many thousands of enslaved people in the British West Indies were no longer legally slaves after 1 August , they were still made to work as unpaid apprentices for their former masters.
These masters continued to ill-treat and exploit them. Enslaved people in the British Caribbean finally gained their freedom at midnight on 31 July Ratified December 6, Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Edited by Patrick T. Conley and John P. Madison House Publishers, The best historical treatments of the legislative history of the Bill of Rights in the first federal Congress are in the general accounts by Rutland, Dumbauld, Brant, Schwartz, and Levy, and in David M.
Matteson, The Organization of the Government under the Constitution ; reprint ed. All agree that James Madison, against considerable odds, took the lead in the House of Representatives, and that without his efforts there probably would have been no Bill of Rights. Brugger Ph. World Book Encyclopedia , Deluxe edition. Madison, James — , the fourth president of the United States, is often called the Father of the Constitution. He played a leading role in the Constitutional Convention of , where he helped design the checks and balances that operate among Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court. He also helped create the U. Oxford University Press, In all cases where a majority are united by a common interest or passion, the rights of the minority are in danger.
What motives are to restrain them? A prudent regard to the maxim that honesty is the best policy is found by experience to be as little regarded by bodies of men as by individuals. Respect for character is always diminished in proportion to the number among whom the blame or praise is to be divided. Conscience, the only remaining tie, is known to be inadequate in individuals: In large numbers, little is to be expected from it. Why was America so justly apprehensive of Parliamentary injustice? Because G. We have seen the mere distinction of colour made in the most enlightened period of time, a ground of the most oppressive dominion ever exercised by man over man.
What has been the source of those unjust laws complained of among ourselves? Has it not been the real or supposed interest of the major number? Debtors have defrauded their creditors. The landed interest has borne hard on the mercantile interest. The Holders of one species of property have thrown a disproportion of taxes on the holders of another species. The lesson we are to draw from the whole is that where a majority are united by a common sentiment, and have an opportunity, the rights of the minor party become insecure.
In a Republican Govt. By the ninth section of this article, the importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a duty may be imposed on such importation not exceeding ten dollars each person. This clause was the subject of a great diversity of sentiment in the Convention. As the system was reported by the committee of detail, the provision was general, that such importation should not be prohibited, without confining it to any particular period. We were then told by the delegates of the two first of those states, that their states would never agree to a system which put it in the power of the general government to prevent the importation of slaves, and that they, as delegates from those states, must withhold their assent from such a system.
A committee of one member from each state was chosen by ballot, to take this part of the system under their consideration, and to endeavor to agree upon some report which should reconcile those states. To this committee also was referred the following proposition, which had been reported by the committee of detail, viz. This committee—of which also I had the honor to be a member—met, and took under their consideration the subjects committed to them. I found the Eastern States, notwithstanding their aversion to slavery, were very willing to indulge the Southern States at least with a temporary liberty to prosecute the slave trade, provided the Southern States would, in their turn, gratify them, by laying no restriction on navigation acts; and after a very little time, the committee, by a great majority, agreed on a report, by which the general government was to be prohibited from preventing the importation of slaves for a limited time, and the restrictive clause relative to navigation acts was to be omitted.
This report was adopted by a majority of the Convention, but not without considerable opposition. It was said, it ought to be considered, that national crimes can only be, and frequently are, punished in this world by national punishments; and that the continuance of the slave trade, and thus giving it a national sanction and encouragement, ought to be considered as justly exposing us to the displeasure and vengeance of Him who is equally Lord of all, and who views with equal eye the poor African slave and his American master. It was further urged that, by this system of government, every state is to be protected both from foreign invasion and from domestic insurrections; that, from this consideration, it was of the utmost importance it should have a power to restrain the importation of slaves, since, in proportion as the number of slaves was increased in any state, in the same proportion the state is weakened and exposed to foreign invasion or domestic insurrection, and by so much less will it be able to protect itself against either; and therefore will, by so much the more, want aid from, and be a burden to, the Union.
These reasons influenced me, both on the committee and in Convention, most decidedly to oppose and vote against the clause, as it now makes a part of the system. You will perceive, sir, not only that the general government is prohibited from interfering in the slave trade before the year eighteen hundred and eight, but that there is no provision in the Constitution that it shall afterwards be prohibited, nor any security that such prohibition will ever take place; and I think there is great reason to believe that, if the importation of slaves is permitted until the year eighteen hundred and eight, it will not be prohibited afterwards.
At this time we do not generally hold this commerce in so great abhorrence as we have done. When our liberties were at stake, we warmly felt for the common rights of men. The danger being thought to be past which threatened ourselves, we are daily growing more insensible to those rights. In those states which have restrained or prohibited the importation of slaves, it is only done by legislative acts which may be repealed.
When those states find that they must in their national character and connection, suffer in the disgrace, and share in the inconveniences, attendant upon that detestable and iniquitous traffic, they may be desirous also to share in the benefits arising from it; and the odium attending it will be greatly effaced by the sanction which is given to it in the general government.
About the time of the Revolution, societies of prominent men were formed for the purpose of ameliorating the condition of the slaves. Pennsylvania was the first state to organize such a society, , with Franklin as president. Bayard and C A. Rodney; Connecticut, ; Virginia, ; New Jersey, Chase Ph. World Book Encyclopedia, Deluxe edition. Second, Washington served as president of the convention that wrote the United States Constitution. Third, he was elected the first president of the United States.
Rutlidge seconded the motion; expressing his confidence that the choice would be unanimous, and observing that the presence of Genl. Washington forbade any observations on the occasion which might otherwise be proper. General Washington was accordingly unanimously elected by ballot, and conducted to the Chair by Mr. Morris and Mr. Rutlidge; from which in a very emphatic manner he thanked the Convention for the honor they had conferred on him, reminded them of the novelty of the scene of business in which he was to act, lamented his want of better qualifications, and claimed the indulgence of the House towards the involuntary errors which his inexperience might occasion. By Kate Mason Rowland. Grateful to Almighty God for the blessing which, through Jesus Christ our Lord, he conferred upon my beloved country, in her emancipation, and upon myself, in permitting me, under circumstances of mercy, to live to the age of 80 years and to survive the fiftieth year of American Independence, and certifying by my present signature my approbation of the Declaration of Independence adopted by Congress on the fourth day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, which I originally subscribed on the second day of August of the same year, and of which I am now the last surviving signer, I do hereby recommend to the present and future generations the principles of that important document as the best earthly inheritance their ancestors could bequeath to them, and pray that the civil and religious liberties they have secured to my country may be perpetuated to the remotest posterity and extended to the whole family of man.
April 23rd : Mr. Walsh has sent me four of the National Gazettes , no doubt with the expectation that I should become a subscriber. That the Gazette will be ably conducted, and contain many interesting dissertations and essays, the talents of Mr. Walsh are a sufficient guarantee; but why keep alive the question of slavery? It is admitted by all to be a great evil; let an effectual mode of getting rid of it be pointed out, or let the question sleep forever; the compromise will prevent the extension of slavery beyond 36 degrees north and west of the Missouri. By William Jay. I hope my letter, in answer to the one which enclosed a number of your political pamphlets, has reached you by this time. I do not recollect the date, but it went in one of the last vessels.
The cause of liberty, like most other good causes, will have its difficulties, and sometimes its persecutions, to struggle with. It has advanced more rapidly in this than other countries, but all its objects are not yet attained; and I much doubt whether they ever will be, in this or any other terrestrial state. That men should pray and fight for their own freedom, and yet keep others in slavery, is certainly acting a very inconsistent, as well as unjust and, perhaps, impious part; but the history of mankind is filled with instances of human improprieties.
The wise and the good never form the majority of any large society, and it seldom happens that their measures are uniformly adopted; or that they can always prevent being overborne themselves by the strong and almost never-ceasing union of the wicked and the weak. These circumstances tell us to be patient, and to moderate those sanguine expectations, which warm and good hearts often mislead even wise heads to entertain on those subjects. All that the best men can do is, to persevere in doing their duty to their country, and leave the consequences to Him who made it their duty; being neither elated by success, however great, nor discouraged by disappointments however frequent and mortifying.
He helped assure the approval of the Declaration of Independence in New York, where he was a member of the provincial Congress. George W. Childs, Societies having in view the abolition of slavery were formed in a number of States, in the early period of the republic, including Virginia and Maryland; and in a general convention of delegates from all the abolition societies in the United States was held in Philadelphia, to consult measures for the removal of slavery; and this general convention met annually for twelve years. Rush was a delegate, and chairman of a committee to draft an address to the people of the United States, which contained the following condemnation of slavery:—.
Many reasons concur in persuading us to abolish domestic slavery in our country. Freedom and slavery cannot long exist together. It is inconsistent with sound policy, in exposing the states which permit it to all those evils which insurrections and the most resentful war have introduced into one of the richest islands the West Indies. It is unfriendly to the present exertions of the inhabitants Europe in favor of liberty. What people will advocate freedom with a zeal proportioned to its blessings, while they view the purest republic in the world tolerating in its bosom a body slaves.
In vain has the tyranny of kings been rejected while we permit in our country a domestic despotism which involves in its nature most of the vices and miseries that we have endeavored to avoid. It is degrading to our rank as men in the scale of being. Let us use our reason and social affections for the purposes for which they were given, or cease to boast a pre-eminence over animals that are unpolluted with our crimes.
But higher motives to justice and humanity towards our fellow-creatures remain yet to be mentioned. Domestic slavery is repugnant to the principles of Christianity. It prostrates every benevolent and just principle of action in the human heart. It is rebellion against the authority of a common Father. It is a practical denial of the extent and efficacy of the death of a common Saviour. It is a usurpation the prerogatives of the great Sovereign of the universe, who has solemnly claimed an exclusive property in the souls of men. But, if this view of the enormity of domestic slavery should not affect us, there is one consideration more, which ought to alarm and impress us, especially at the present juncture.
It is a violation of a divine precept of universal justice, which has in no case escaped with impunity. As a member of the radical provincial conference in June , he drafted a resolution urging independence and was soon elected to the Continental Congress, signing the Declaration of Independence with other members on August 2. Cunningham, Jr. Congress appointed a committee to draw up a declaration of independence. Transcribed and edited by Gerard W. Library of Congress, February 13, The committee of five met; no such thing as a sub-committee was proposed, but they unanimously pressed on myself alone to undertake the draught. I consented; I drew it; but before I reported it to the committee, I communicated it separately to Doctor Franklin and Mr. Adams, requesting their corrections because they were the two members of whose judgments and amendments I wished most to have the benefit, before presenting it to the committee: and you have seen the original paper now in my hands, with the corrections of Doctor Franklin and Mr.
Adams interlined in their own handwritings. Their alterations were two or three only, and merely verbal. I then wrote a fair copy, reported it to the committee, and from them unaltered, to Congress. This personal communication and consultation with Mr. Adams, he has misremembered into the actings of a sub-committee. Of that I am not to be the judge. I know only that I turned to neither book nor pamphlet while writing it. I did not consider it as any part of my charge to invent new ideas altogether, and to offer no sentiment which had ever been expressed before. Madison, Aug. By George Tucker. On the subject of slaves, one which Mr. Jefferson seems always to have regarded with the interest of a patriot, as well as of a philanthropist, the committee were content merely to make a digest of the laws concerning them.
But they further agreed to an amendment to the bill, whenever it should be taken up, by which all the children of slaves, born after an appointed day, should be free, and be carried out of the state when they arrived at a certain age. Yet the day is not distant when it must bear and adopt it, or worse will follow. Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate, than that these people are to be free; nor is it less certain, that the two races, equally free, cannot live in the same government.
Nature, habit, opinion, have drawn indelible lines of distinction between them. It is still in our power to direct the process of emancipation and deportation, peaceably, and in such slow degree, as that the evil will wear off insensibly, and their place be, pari passu , filled up by free white labourers. If, on the contrary it is left to force itself on, human nature must shudder at the prospect held up.
We should in vain look for an example in the Spanish deportation or deletion of the Moors. This precedent would fall far short of our case. Throughout his entire life, Thomas Jefferson was a consistent opponent of slavery. From the mids until his death, he advocated the same plan of gradual emancipation. Jefferson was 14 years old when his father died. As the oldest son, he became head of the family. He inherited more than 2, acres 1, hectares of land and at least 20 slaves. Jefferson was born into a slave society in which he continued to own slaves while opposing slavery. He never justified owning slaves, but he felt that freeing his slaves would not have ended slavery as an institution.
He worked within the system to oppose slavery. Jefferson acquired most of the over six hundred people he owned during his life through the natural increase of enslaved families. He acquired approximately enslaved people through inheritance: about 40 from the estate of his father, Peter Jefferson, in , and from his father-in-law, John Wayles, in Jefferson purchased fewer than twenty slaves in his lifetime. Jefferson did buy and sell human beings. He purchased slaves occasionally, because of labor needs or to unite spouses. He freed five people in his will. He allowed two or three people to escape without pursuit, and recommended informal freedom for two others. In total, of the more than six hundred people Jefferson enslaved, he freed only ten people—all members of the same family.
By David M. Kennedy Stanford University and Thomas A. Houghton Mifflin, Farsighted colonists had repeatedly attempted in their local assemblies to restrict or stop the odious African slave trade. But the London government, responding to the anguished cries of British and New England slave traders, had killed all such laws with the royal veto—five times in the case of Virginia alone. Jefferson added this grievance to the original indictment, but Congress threw it out, largely because of opposition from those parts of the South heavily dependent on the slave trade. Would this clause have added to the effectiveness of the Declaration of Independence? How, if at all, might its inclusion have changed the subsequent course of human history?
The pusillanimous idea that we had friends in England worth keeping terms with, still haunted the minds of many. For this reason those passages which conveyed censures on the people of England were struck out, lest they should give them offence. The clause too, reprobating the enslaving the inhabitants of Africa, was struck out in complaisance to South Carolina and Georgia, who had never attempted to restrain the importation of slaves, and who on the contrary still wished to continue it.
Pendleton to Jefferson , Aug. To prove this let facts be submitted to a candid world for the truth of which we pledge a faith yet unsullied by falsehood. And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed against the LIBERTIES of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the LIVES of another.
On Friday July 12 . On the 30th. The first of these articles was expressed in the original draught in these words. He affirmed that slaves did not do so much work as freemen, and doubted if two effected more than one. That this was proved by the price of labor. Witherspoon opposed every alteration of the article. All men admit that a confederacy is necessary. Many of the laws which were in force during the monarchy being relative merely to that form of government, or inculcating principles inconsistent with republicanism, the first assembly which met after the establishment of the commonwealth appointed a committee to revise the whole code, to reduce it into proper form and volume, and report it to the assembly.
This work has been executed by three gentlemen, and reported; but probably will not be taken up till a restoration of peace shall leave to the legislature leisure to go through such a work. The plan of the revisal was this. The common law of England, by which is meant, that part of the English law which was anterior to the date of the oldest statutes extant, is made the basis of the work. It was thought dangerous to attempt to reduce it to a text: it was therefore left to be collected from the usual monuments of it. Necessary alterations in that, and so much of the whole body of the British statutes, and of acts of assembly, as were thought proper to be retained, were digested into new acts, in which simplicity of stile was aimed at, as far as was safe.
The following are the most remarkable alterations proposed: …. To emancipate all slaves born after passing the act. It will probably be asked, Why not retain and incorporate the blacks into the state, and thus save the expence of supplying, by importation of white settlers, the vacancies they will leave? Deep rooted prejudices entertained by the whites; ten thousand recollections, by the blacks, of the injuries they have sustained; new provocations; the real distinctions which nature has made; and many other circumstances, will divide us into parties, and produce convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of the one or the other race.
The General assembly 30 shall not have power to … to permit the introduction of any more slaves to reside in this state, or the continuance of slavery beyond the generation which shall be living on the 31st. Illinois State Journal, This also embraced the inhabitants of the north part of the Northwest Territory which was not conquered by Clark. In the first ordinance for the government of the Territory was passed. A motion having been made by a delegate from a southern state, to strike out the provision, the votes of six northern states were opposed to the motion. As each state had but one vote, and two delegates, one of the delegates from New Jersey being absent, that state had no vote, and the motion prevailed and the provision was stricken out.
The measure was drafted by Mr. Jefferson, and he was greatly chagrined at the striking out of the slavery clause. Thus we see the fate of millions unborn hanging on the tongue of one man, and Heaven was silent in that awful moment, but it is to be hoped that it will not always be silent; and that the friends to the rights of human nature will in the end prevail. From this language, it will be seen that Mr. Jefferson did not consider the language of the Declaration of Independence, a string of glittering generalities, but that he intended to express a self evident truth, when he said that all men were endowed with certain inalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and that he did not exclude the slaves then in servitude.
The U. Congress passed this piece of landmark legislation to end the profitable international slave trade on March 2, , and President Thomas Jefferson promptly signed the act, making it law. The act went into effect on January 1, , prohibiting from that time on the importation of African slaves to the United States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and eight, it shall not be lawful to import or bring into the United States or the territories thereof from any foreign kingdom, place, or country, any negro, mulatto, or person of colour, with intent to hold, sell, or dispose of such negro, mulatto, or person of colour, as a slave, or to be held to service or labour.
Of the two commissioners who had concerted the amendatory clause for the gradual emancipation of slaves Mr. Wythe could not be present as being a member of the judiciary department, and Mr. Jefferson was absent on the legation to France. But they saw that the moment of doing it with success was not yet arrived, and that an unsuccessful effort, as too often happens, would only rivet still closer the chains of bondage, and retard the moment of delivery to this oppressed description of men. What a stupendous, what an incomprehensible machine is man! This abomination must have an end, and there is a superior bench reserved in heaven for those who hasten it.
I have deferred answering your letter on the subject of slaves, because you permitted me to do it till a moment of leisure, and that moment rarely comes, and because too, I could not answer you with such a degree of certainty as to merit any notice. I do not recollect the conversation at Vincennes to which you allude, but can repeat still on the same ground, on which I must have done then, that as far as I can judge from the experiments which have been made, to give liberty to, or rather, to abandon persons whose habits have been formed in slavery is like abandoning children.
Many quakers in Virginia seated their slaves on their lands as tenants. They were distant from me, and therefore I cannot be particular in the details, because I never had very particular information. I cannot say whether they were to pay a rent in money, or a share of the produce: but I remember that the landlord was obliged to plan their crops for them, to direct all their operations during every season and according to the weather, but, what is more afflicting, he was obliged to watch them daily and almost constantly to make them work, and even to whip them. He who is permitted by law to have no property of his own, can with difficulty conceive that property is founded in any thing but force.
These slaves chose to steal from their neighbors rather than work. They became public nuisances, and in most instances were reduced to slavery again. But I will beg of you to make no use of this imperfect information unless in common conversation. I shall go to America in the Spring and return in the fall. During my stay in Virginia I shall be in the neighborhood where many of these trials were made. I will inform myself very particularly of them, and communicate the information to you. Besides these, there is an instance since I came away of a young man Mr.
Mayo who died and gave freedom to all his slaves, about This is about 4. I shall know how they have turned out. Notwithstanding the discouraging result of these experiments, I am decided on my final return to America to try this one. I shall endeavor to import as many Germans as I have grown slaves. I will settle them and my slaves, on farms of Their children shall be brought up, as others are, in habits of property and foresight, and I have no doubt but that they will be good citizens Some of their fathers will be so: others I suppose will need government. With these, all that can be done is to oblige them to labour as the labouring poor of Europe do, and to apply to their comfortable subsistence the produce of their labour, retaining such a moderate portion of it as may be a just equivalent for the use of the lands they labour and the stocks and other necessary advances.
Edited by John P. Ford Ed. The sacrifice must fall on the States alone which hold them; and the difficult question will be how to lessen this so as to reconcile our fellow citizens to it. Personally, I am ready and desirous to make any sacrifice which shall ensure their gradual but complete retirement from the State, and effectually, at the same time, establish them elsewhere in freedom and safety. Thomas Humphreys. National Archives. I can say with conscious truth that there is not a man on earth who would sacrifice more than I would, to relieve us from this heavy reproach, in any practicable way. It was thought better that this should be kept back, and attempted only by way of amendment whenever the bill should be brought on.
The principles of the amendment however were agreed on, that is to say, the freedom of all born after a certain day, and deportation at a proper age. But it was found that the public mind would not yet bear the proposition, nor will it bear it even at this day. Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people are to be free. Nor is it less certain that the two races, equally free, cannot live in the same government. Nature, habit, opinion has drawn indelible lines of distinction between them. It is still in our power to direct the process of emancipation and deportation peaceably and in such slow degree as that the evil will wear off insensibly, and their place be pari passu filled up by free white laborers.
If on the contrary it is left to force itself on, human nature must shudder at the prospect held up. By Alfred H. Kelly and Winfred A. In the North, the growth of extremist antislavery sentiment resulted in the birth of the Republican Party, which adopted an attitude of uncompromising hostility toward all extension of slavery in the territories.
The Republicans absorbed the Northern Whigs almost completely, while many important antislavery Democrats, including such outstanding figures as Lyman Trumbull of Illinois and Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, also shifted to the Republican camp. In their first national convention, held in Philadelphia in , the Republicans adopted a platform announcing that it was the Constitutional duty of Congress to exclude slavery from all federal territories. A brief history of the rise, progress, and policy of anti-slavery and the political organization into whose hands the administration of the Federal Government has been committed will fully justify the pronounced verdict of the people of Georgia. The party of Lincoln, called the Republican party, under its present name and organization, is of recent origin.
In the meantime, a motley pack of rabid EU politicians with imperial phantom pains are also making some noises but can do nothing at all. This is what Manifest Destiny really is. Modern ecologists, woke activists and militant homosexuals all very much share in that mindset. The sad but undeniable truth is that the true roots of modern Europe are not in Rome, even less so Athens, but in the Latin Crusades and the subsequent Middle-Ages.
The Reform and Renaissance changed nothing, or even made things worse. Neither did or WWII. The spiritual and philosophical roots of the West are neither Roman, nor Greek, but found amongst those who destroyed Rome and severed it off from the truly civilized world, not only in the Christian East, but worldwide: the Franks. Imperialism originates in our heads, it is a worldview, a mindset, and that is where it must be eradicated for it to finally vanish.
The mind is where imperialism begins but also where it will end, just like any other human phenomenon. By creating an instrument of total control the Internet the Empire also created the first global resistance to empire community in world history! But what the US ruling elites failed to do is to prevent regular, mainstream, US Americans from wanting to know, to learn, to explore and, eventually, to fight for justice. Yes, it is mostly silenced, but in the depths, it is very much still there. But I am confident that the type of imperialism which has its roots in the medieval Papacy which even Hitler admitted with some admiration is coming to an end.
And to my infinite regret, sadness and pain, and location of my own place of birth most of the rulers of imperial Russia fell for such temptations. And this is also the true, core, reason why the Russian monarch fell in February of Kerensky and his supporters did. Gene Sharp — you can see his pietistic quasi-hagiography here Wikipedia on politics, as usual — only systematized the study of this field. Had Russia better elites, all these delusions would not have been replaced with total horror. Think of the monolog about true horror by Colonel Walter E. Kurtz in the brilliant allegorical movie Apocalypse Now! The immense costs of WWII for both China and Russia truly brought the reality of imperialism to the Russians and the Chinese people, and they want none of it again.
In other words, an overwhelming majority of Russians reject not just the execution but the very principle of imperialism or the optional use of military force , even if Russia wins! The difference is that Russians now know, personally, the true costs of Empire. Awareness of the true costs of empire is a formidable empire-killer as seen recently in Afghanistan between the clueless GIs and the Afghan warlords. This is why the Empire will do everything it can to deny, obfuscate or otherwise conceal these costs! Furthermore, once the costs of empire become known by a critical mass of sincerely patriotic people whatever the country or their political system , the core ideology needed by the empire to justify itself and simply operate becomes gravely endangered.
How bad does it get? Not in Afghanistan. Not by SDI. Big, big difference. The USSR was defeated by the CPSU Party Nomenklatura who basically destroyed an entire country to rule over its many leftover chunks, almost none of which actually managed to become a viable state. Put it simply: the Soviet regime died because of its own lies, hypocrisy, inhumanity and, frankly, frequent sheer stupidity. Not a foreign military operation. Eventually, over time, the painful truth began seeping into the Russian mind.
That is how and why the Soviet forces had to be withdrawn. Again, the US won nothing, the Soviets are the one who lost — they did it to themselves, really! Again, does it sound familiar? To be unambiguously clear: I think that the Soviet decision to enter Afghanistan was both deeply misguided and inherently immoral my personal interactions with Soviet officers and participating in a very interesting discussion between a representative of the Northern Alliance and Russian exiles, convinced me of that.
But the following facts are also undeniable:. Compared to what the US brought to Afghanistan, the Soviets look like both true warriors and true humanitarians. And, remember, we are talking mostly about conscripts here, many poorly trained, poorly supported and even poorly commanded. As for what the Russians can do now, they should remember that Afghans will remember both the bad and the good there is a large Afghan community in Russia and they can promise to themselves that in the future all Russians will treat all the people of Afghanistan with true, informed respect and extend a sincere hand of friendship.
West Point! Russians might even be an inferior race, since they are so evil and stupid! This type of delusional coping mechanism is well known to modern psychology and is really quite common. It is really just a stage of grief, not an analysis of anything real. The truth is that even the popular Putin had to work hard to defend his personal decision to engage a small, relatively weak military task force into Syria. Even a loyal Putinist like myself initially feared that this might be a huge mistake.
It was not, and Putin and his generals were even smarter than I thought at the time the entire operation is a masterpiece for future military textbooks! Had that operation failed, and it was both daring and very risky in the early phases especially , there would have been hell to pay for Putin, Shoigu and all those who put their moral weight behind it. Of course, there are plenty of Russians condemning Putin for not moving forces into the Donbass besides a few special forces, artillery spotters, forward air controllers and one very effective artillery strike across the border , but these people would have unanimously considered such a Russian military intervention, had it happened, as self-evidently purely defensive strategically but not operationally or tactically, of course.
Frankly, the Balts and Poles look ridiculous in their narcissistic paranoia. On Russian TV, the western propaganda is immediately translated and aired, to the greatest laughter of the audience! As for the Ukronazis, they only inspire disgust and a firm determination to never allow another attack on Russia coming from the West, or elsewhere for that matter. But there is no desire for war with any of these guys, even for a war Russia would win in a week or two. In fact, in its current shape, the Ukraine is potentially a deadly toxin for Russia, especially if the Russians ever put their guard down. Will that ever happen? Will Zone B nations be strong, wise and determined enough to create new international institutions? But if it does not, then our planet is indeed lost until the Second Coming.
In old empires, the core was small and resource-poor. So, the core had to exploit its imperial colonies. But the US itself if vast and rich. So, the US can give lots of stuff to its colonies and be generous. US is about Jewish elites and their cuck goy elites. US takes in the best and brightest from all over the world: India, China, Africa, etc. And these people interact with Jewish and white cuck elites.
So, the world elites look to the US. In the past, white elites cared about white masses. Elites found a clever way to deal with mass politics. They promote BLM. This gives the impression that the rich elites care about the poor and disadvantaged folks. But why only mention black people? What about white working class? What about brown peons? But that would be Class Politics, and that could threaten the elites. So, the elites have conflated people politics with the idolatry of blackness.
If anything, white and brown masses are made to kowtow to blacks who kick their butts and commit the most crime. Elites also push for mass immigration and claim to care about immigrants, but immigration undermines people power because More People means lower wages and more division and dissension among the diverse divided folks. US is paradise for the elites, and the elites the world over look to the US as the metropole. Elites rule everything, so the US empire will continue on strong. I then read the rest of the article in disbelief. None of this article sounds anything like what I am used to hearing from The Saker. George S. Patton, unlike many of his corporatized brother officers, was a real warrior who was not afraid to sacrifice his men in the interests of achieving a great victory.
The quote apparently originates in a stump speech to American troops in North Africa in , shortly after the disaster at the Kasserine Pass. Its purpose was to motivate American soldiers who had just been beaten by the Germans to return to the battlefield and beat the Nazis at their own game. Which they then went and did. General George S. Patton May …what a beautiful world it would have been …. Maybe off in the details but he got the central idea right. Not that I think it will happen but we all see the fault lines…. Perhaps this withdrawal will enlighten some Americans. What a strange thing for you to say, mon cher suisse. Personal guilt? Most Americans have some Indian blood. Are we to feel personal guilt over what some of our ancestors did to some of our other ancestors?
I think that most of us acknowledge the injustice of stealing the land, intentionally spreading smallpox on contaminated blankets, killing Indian non-combatants, women and children, and the outrages of Sand Creek, Wounded Knee, Hangman Creek and other sundry massacres and outrages too numerous and too unknown to mention. If we feel anything, we feel conflicted, and most of all, we feel cut off from those who acted on both sides of the equation. We can see their haunting sepia images in old photographs, we can imagine their thoughts, but we cannot touch them, we cannot reproduce their religious beliefs or their encyclopedic knowledge of the land.
Apparently won by the AZ. Not only that, but asked by the AZ to come and help them to extricate themselves from the quagmire! So, what went wrong? I delight in reminding the stark warnings of a real statesman made over years ago against a war with Russia. I am talking of course of Otto von Bismarck:. Russians have always come for their money. And when they come — do not rely on an agreement signed by you, you are supposed to justify. They are not worth the paper it is written. But such a result is beyond all probability even after the most brilliant victories. Even the most favorable outcome of the war would never result in the disintegration of the main power of Russia, which rests on the millions of real Russians of Greek confession.
The US managed to drastically reduce Afghan birth rates during its year occupation. A dramatic decrease in just 20 years. Plus, the US kept the peace. Now with the Taliban in power, there will be an avalanche of refugees to Europe and America. The Jewish elites there are already pining to open the doors so that these 80 iq goat herders can rape and rob with abandon in Germany and France. Could you please knock it off with the gentle lotus eating Noble American Injun nonsense? Were the Slavs who took over the land mass known as Russia gentle lotus eaters?
What is the Tartar perspective on the conquering Slavs? What about the Mongolian perspective on the Slavs? Let that sink in. True, so true. Note; Soviet Apparatchniks and Nomenklatura saw the light and decided it was better to loot than to fight. In contrast, our Beltway Bandits are unlikely going to exit gracefully like the Soviets did. Odds are the Beltway Bandits will fight violently to cling to power. The odds of a barbaric Spanish Civil War scenario are high.
FDR said it best though not first: There are no accidents in politics. International bankers know no borders and they play us — all of us — with the highest order of politics of all, the movement of energy known as money all over the world. Creating opportunity in China while destroying it elsewhere is the current game in progress. The diversions f0r that are all too obvious when you know Julian Assage called it right a decade ago.
Addendum: Since his music is now public domain, Hollywood music composers plagiarize his music with impunity in many of the greatest movie soundtracks you have ever heard, and yet not one mention of his creative genius or one cent in royalties is given to his estate. Find the difference.. Elevating the North American abos to sacred victim status is a cheap and dishonest way to underline otherwise good points he makes here. We can look back today on the results of imperialism — the damage it does to the victors as well as the vanquished — and say it was wrong and net-negative for all concerned.
But a US base in Central Asia was always crazy. The truth is, the US will be more successful in the region without their military. All the countries will want a US relationship to have any leverage with China, in the emerging US China bipolar world. Like Vietnam now. We lost a similar war there also. We never needed to in the first place. Future US interventions will be with special forces and contractors. This is utter rubbish. Just like Syria. Afghanistan is NOT Syria, geographically and ethnically. The U. It was a long commitment that beared no fruits. When Soviet troops were leaving Afghanistan, they were farewelled with sadness and respect. It was an end of friendly commitment.
Now, compare this with Anglo-Zionism in Afghanistan. Sir, just to set the record strait. Every time the German infantry had somewhat of a even shot against the American infantry during WW2, they kicked American butt. Our guys never even took all of Italy before the end of the war. We won because of our bombing, period. Army in Afghanistan. Everything Saker writes about the US is true, but what he lies about is that Russia is not 10x worse. After the glorious Red Russian Rapist Army walked into Ukraine, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia and Bukovina, the first thing they did, after raping every girl between 10 and and 80 years of age, was to gather up all the intelligensia and potential opposition and talmudically murder the best of them while sending their wives and children off to slave labor camps known as the gulag.
Of course Saker and his pathological lying Russian hosts would also claim that the German labor camps were worse, but that of course is merely another Russian lie propagated by liars like Saker who can make even CNN blush. Again, all we would have to do is ask a simple question the citizens of those same countries the eternal God of Russia, Stalin, purged. It was the thousands upon thousands of Tomahawks, Aerocobras and Hurricanes, and US oil to fly them, that allowed the Russian Judeo-Communist stooges to regain control of the air and ward off the Wehrmacht. In short, there a few major Saker lies that need to be shattered here. That Russia is not an empire. And most importantly, that Russians are somehow minor war criminals when compared with the Anglo Saxons, the Germans, or the Americans.
Americans were far from home in Vietnam and Afghanistan. Unless they could populate a colony with their own people. Such as previous empires did E. Europeans when they arrived in North America and decimated the local inhabitants. They were bound to fail. But even they had to leave finally. Better to concentrate on what you can influence and control yourself. Invest in your own people and country. Get rid of your avaricious elites who want to enrich themselves at the expense of the local population. USA has more plans of committing more terrorism in Afghanistan. It is its known MO. ISIS is the ace they have up their sleeves. Once the US military leaves , airport and rest of Kabul likely will become the target. US is preparing or conditioning the servile mind of the propagandized citizen to start thanking America for being in Afghanistan and preventing terror attacks from the soil of Kabul by their sheer presence.
It wants to create an Iraq like situation so that it can return. From the NYT:. If the US needs to prepare evacuation plans for the entire Middle East, as the Saker proposes, how will Israel manage to continue its sabotage and assassinations in Iran, not to mention its weekly, gratuitous bombings of neighbors such as Syria? The Indians in N America warred constantly, invading, conquering, murdering and enslaving defeated tribes. Every country on Earth was founded by a warrior tribe who invaded and took control of the land.
Where did the Rus come from? I vaguely remember reading about a Viking invasion.. Vikings, Germans, Celts and Romans. Romans, Germans, Celts, Moors and others. Celts, Romans, Franks and more. He has always been completely wrong. Well…not completely, but pretty close. How is that different? Lara Logan covered this subject with fewer words and better logic.
Got to get the baby in the picture. That way, every white woman in the west, will be caterwauling to bring in the Afghans, to save the children, playing into the hands of tptb, who are going to use the Afghan situation to flood even more Muslims into the west, to cause discord. Have you looked at where Afghanistan is on a map? Good news is, the covid stupid jabs, will remove a large percentage of the western women, eager to destroy their civilization through mass immigration.
Those women out there who see the baby in the image and see the propaganda at play, are the ones that western man needs to continue the civilization with. For four hundred years the criminal, social, political and economic rejects of every country on earth have been coming to America, breeding generation after generation of misfits and fanatics. The result of all this frenzied activity is that we must be in a state of permanent war against the rest of humanity. It will take a lot more than an overseas military reversal to stop what now keeps our economy alive. Mugging other nations for their natural and human resources is vital to keeping the ruling class in power: endless war supplies the flood of shiny toys our rulers provide as rewards for our obedience, because they know we are as distractible and generally as observant and narcissistic as children.
And they genuinely, passionately hate us, for being so easy to fool, as much as they fear us ever waking up to the power we hold. The United States government is functioning today exactly as the Founding Fathers intended, to permit the appearance of popular participation in order to lend legitimacy to oligarchic dominance. What were the US supported Afghan troops fighting for? A paycheck? Was there any belief system involved? The US was trying to play them as suckers, risking their lives to fight for nothing pertinent to them. The President to whom Bush refers is former President Clinton, who has become a centimillionaire in conjunction with his charitable relief efforts.
I watched that video for 20 minutes and was not impressed. There were 3 speakers, one Anglo and two Greeks and they all praised the Greeks and denounced the Franks. Can we start with Apostle Pauls epistles[letters]. They say he wrote in Greek thereby indicating or proving that the Romans spoke Greek. What else can you expect from an Anglo who praises Greece since Greece has been practically a British colony since about They say it has changed a lot in years. But the real reason is that biblical Greek is not Greek at all. Check out all the Greek dictionaries and you will see there is no Greek morphology. There is no Greek morphology for these words. But there is a Macedonian[Slavic] morphology. The letter A is explained.
This also proves that Ancient Greeks did not exist. Personally i like to call the language Slavic, or dare i say Serbian, or even Macedonian since they are nearly the same. Thus the Eastern Roman Empire was never Greek since Greek was only invented after about , but it was Roman and the people who lived around Constantinople called themselves Romans[apart from Turks] But i think there were more Serbs there, who called themselves Romans and it is these Serbs and Macedonians who assimilated into Greeks.
Now look at French words. Saker probably knows. Excuse me, but i have to be a bit rude here, to wake you up. So you are correct. A lot of things happened in the first thousand years of Christianity. Thanks Mr. Unz and Mr. This is what Serbians are talking about and writing about these days. The US is vacuous in the extreme. Wherever the US goes there is a moral vacuum since the entire US modus operandi is based on lies, obfuscation and hubris. Thus the end result is what has been witnessed in every US conflict where any serious opposition has materialised. Although this record engenders much handwringing today, it is impossible to imagine the United States existing if a more reasonable course had been pursued. As you seem to have missed in your own examples, this is an observed phenomenon of not just collapsing regimes but nascent ones as well, and potentially all periods in between as compelled by internal conditions.
We can label this Internal Consolidation. We can thus assess that Germans in the Nazi period got a full run. CCP China rightly began its reign with what is playfully known as expelling the foreign devils. That was followed by midterm spa treatments like the Cultural Revolution to resolve domestic factional struggles. It will resolve one way or another as it always must. Unlike the run-up to the Civil War and the war itself, the US is not a divided nation.
Despite all the real and exacerbated differences, most Americans are not at each others throats over that which is fundamental for any nation. This is a cruel lie exploited in the struggle for power. The factional power struggle continues to rage in Washington. That is where the next shoes will drop, for better or for worse. Kabul fell quickly because the Taliban and its followers were spread throughout the country and its cities.
Once the US retreated the whole Taliban movement rose with little resistance. So this statement merely confirms that Afghans as a collective actually want the Taliban and the Taliban has shown that it has matured with some swift but telling remarks on what it sees going forward. Whether they hold true to their word is to be determined but I would much rather take them at their word than anything the empire ever says. Deobandism is a thoroughly modern invention, having been created circa after the failed First War of Indian Independence, and it never disappeared or weakened after that. In fact the seminary at Deoband is one of the largest Islamic theological centres in the world.
As the Roman Empire began to collapse, it started abandoning distant colonies, like Britain, leaving numbers of Roman citizens stranded there. These people also claim their hearts bleed for Muslims while genocidally exterminating Muslims since or, as in Iraq, years before. Afghan money abroad, like Venezuelan gold, will remain stolen, Afghan athletes will be offered bribes to defect, Guaidullahs will be propped up, etc.
I see a lot of people on the left assuming that the Taliban victory will be a tremendous boost for al Qaeda. But not until then. Remember the point no 1 about Rome? The Roman Empire held on, in the shape of Byzantium, until the s. Taiwan offers Amerikastan nothing except chips which it can still buy from China afterwards. Brits may be this or that, but the Afghans have faced their invasions thrice before , , , and the last thing that they will trust is Brutain to be ever up to anything but no good. Does the Faker not have a map? No deals between the Jews and Yanks. British withdrawal from Palestine and no Jewish usurping the Palestinian state. No bullshit holocaust propaganda or reparations. No continuous warring in the Middle East…..
Thank you for the link. Need to look at his prediction more closely. The fault lines are real and growing worse; except for the elites, the globohomo, perhaps the great replacement will overwhelm the dissenters in numbers. I am sure they can manage the third world cholos easier than angry old white men. As long as… They keep the welfare flowing. Unz and his amigo Reed can shove their idea about magic dust creating something out of third world peasants..
Part of that economics is the massive US welfare state. Getting access to that is one of the reasons to pour across the border…. I digress… to a point. The thing will hold together as long as the globohomos can print enough money to keep it together. Can you imagine the riots that will ensue if welfare starts to get cut due to the inability to afford it? A nation as armed as this with real not bullshit riots… I mean real if they are based on cutting welfare. So will it break up? He is basically presenting himself as what he emphatically is not. He needs to maintain the illusion that he knows what he is talking about. But the non-Jew criminals? Bunkers in NZ? Ranches in Paraguay? They must be aware of Somoza, that people came looking for him ….
These 80 IQ goat herders what is this obsession you lot have with IQs anyway? Because no matter how many times idiots get negative feedback they continue to do stupid things. Good thing Uncle Sam launched D-Day. Had he not done so the Russians would probably have stopped at the Channel, not the Elbe. Population growth is slowing or ending in almost every part of the World. The West has the military power to close their borders. It is a failure of the culture in the West that is causing its decline, not too many people elsewhere wanting to invade it. An often-repeated meme, but incorrect. There are many counterexamples to the thesis. Rommel himself thought that the Kasserine Pass battle was not a smashing success; outnumbered Americans fought well in retreat and prevented the annihilation of their force, which surely would have happened to any British formation.
American infantrymen at the Battle of the Bulge fought well under the worst possible conditions—massed attacks by German armor, total German tactical superiority in the first few days, weather preventing reinforcements and the use of artillery, confusion at the divisional and higher level about German operations. On a per capita basis, the Normandy campaign involved the heaviest fighting of the entire war. I would certainly agree that the fascist, racist, based Germans were better troops at an individual level than Americans were. The Empire can endure a lot of negative externalities before seriously risking its troops in combat.
Even if true, so what? I deplore killing civilians, but I do like the logical abilities of leaders who think that way about war. Nobody, ever, even in warrior cultures, deliberately makes war in such a way as to expose themselves to the maximal possibility of death. Everyone tries to reduce casualties to their own side while inflicting maximal damage on the enemy.
Nietzsche said that States are the coldest of cold monsters. Sorry, but all this moralising by the Saker gets on my nerve. The whole American empire is an accident that will disappear as soon as the economic wherewithal is gone. As soon as the Dollar stops to be the world currency its over. Very soon I believe. And then others will move in as nature abhors a void. China will expand but will run against some very real limits. It is a great country and a great civilisation but utterly lacking in any kind of ability to understand foreigners. Her modus operandi of expanding is the ink blot.
She will have no choice but to intervene in the not so distant future in Central Asia and there she will get stopped. Chinese already evoke incredible hatred in the stans and as soon as the Chinese bought elites lose control China will have to intervene to secure the gas pipelines. Interesting read, but Saker is wrong about when the Amperican Empire fell. It was not Nothing great ever occurred in this country after that date. The motion speeds up at the end. And the bit about taking the continent as thuggery? The Anglos and French brought them civilization. Not our fault they became a bunch of drug addicts and drunks. I think there is much truth in what you say. But I would like to propose another model for what is happening in Afghanistan that I think has both explanatory power as well as predictive power.
My first assumption is that the world is ruled by smart knowledgeable people. There is too much competition for power for idiots to rise to real levels of power. I omit sock-puppets such as Biden from among this class. This is not to say that our rulers are not evil from the point of view of normal humans though. They are. I agree with you that the West is ruled by a gang of thugs. As General Butler observed, he could have taught a thing or two to Al Capone. Gangs wants nothing to impede their looting, i. Since the US Government has been captured by this international gang of thugs, it has become the Lord of Chaos around the world. I offer as examples, Libya and Iraq. Both are poster children for the Lord of Chaos. Applying this model to Afghanistan, what did the Lord of Chaos expect when it pulled out its military?
Civil War. That is what they expected and that is what they wanted. When the Taliban rolled over Afghanistan without a fight and the country became at peace for the first time in decades, the blood of the Lord of Chaos ran cold. Peace and a strong national government is the last thing it wants — in any country think Portland, Oregon as the poster child for the Lord of Chaos in the US itself. Where is the only chaos in Afghanistan today? At the airport where the Lord of Chaos still reigns. Obviously: chaos and civil war.
Expect dissident warlords to be empowered by the West. Expect the Lord of Chaos to whip up hatred for the minority Shias. Expect outside fighters to be imported to foment chaos. Expect economic sanctions to prevent the establishment of a strong government. Expect an unrelenting stream of fake atrocity stories in the media controlled by the Lord of Chaos. Expect all of the above and more. After all, the Lord of Chaos wrote the book on these dirty tricks. In Babylonian myth, it is Marduk who ultimately defeated Tiamat and restored order to the universe. Today, the countries in what you define as Zone B are playing the role of Marduk in our iteration of that cosmic war.
They are worthy warriors in this effort as each knows the enemy intimately, having in their time thrown out the Lord of Chaos and restored strong national governments for the benefit of their own people. Secession of Red States aka Real America is next. Or they can choose an optional bloodbath first. Most will find the dread of waiting for collapse worse than the collapse itself. The US is of course still a stronghold but definitely not a paradise for the world elites : for instance, the filthy rich emirs of the Gulf love to tour and throw parties all around European places and even Brazil. Elite people want to be economically superior to all but they like to served by quality serfs with a certain culture and respect for elite culture like in the Austrian empire of yore, not by expendable barbarians that could all of a sudden turn Taliban.
These elites have rather the ingrained fear inherited from the late Roman Empire that their employees might all of a sudden act as Italian mafiosi, Viking marauders, British pirates … rather than as Americans. The US is not perceived as a metropole by the elites inhabiting it, the Indians generally despise it, it is rather perceived like it was originally, a territory of colonial pillage by all means, a territory to make money to be invested elsewhere.
The Jews consider it as their Israeli colony to be sucked dry as quickly as possible and most other ethnic groups that still maintain a strong identity follow suit. It is a big Argentina. The US universities are a joke : you get there the cheapest education of the world, mimicking what the Chinese cultural revolution allowed to be taught that is to say pure indoctrination , for the dearest price of the world. For quite a long time what attracted so many best and brightest from all over the world was the relatively lower price of property, food, and commodities for the class of revenues that still fetched among the well to do, despite the much lower quality of cultural and human life.
But that is no longer the case at all. But this time Afghanistan is now a satellite of China. American intervention is impossible, the slightest will in that direction from the US would immediately translate by massive presence of Chinese troops in that country. Biden is committed to Chinese interests. The reason they left is of course Money. Heroine is no longer worth the trouble as Fentanyl is cheaper and stronger. Whoever schedules the TV — Russian citizens are always going to be reminded of the sacrifice. The populace can sing old war era songs and still have a tear or two — when they finish.
At a street corner. I hope they never forget! US troops have been the force to kept Afghanistan relatively stable. Us is doing also a lot of good. US became a garbage collector of the world. We have a forest fires, but we always have a frequent Garbage dump fires. I am a racist! But I am only cultural racist! Why Saker sees it as so fundamentally wrong is beyond me. Saker just laughs at it. God spare me such a lack of common sense. One wonders if even now the implications are clear to them. The West thought they could force more concessions while Iran offered fewer.
Iran will now join the SCO and will sit at the future table of great powers. IOW, it cannot be ignored. Afghanistan while all this was going on. For the first time ever, these took place under joint command, signifying a rapidly deepening relationship and a major security development on the Eurasian continent. That has global implications. Reports of German-Russian talks are pretty solid while the others lack corroboration. Clearly Pakistan is positioning itself firmly in the SCO camp, which just as clearly leaves India in limbo. That there will be no power struggles, bloody civil war or score-settling is all but assured. So there it is. The West needs redefining, desperately, but the intellectual and moral poverty of its elites suggests a bumpy downhill ride ahead.
It is actually nekulturny. Just look at this mental diarrhea:. Zhukov also commanded rapist armies in a system that not only made surrender a capital offense, but that also went after the entire family of Russian rapist soldiers who surrendered. But as is usual with typical Russian depravity, this is only the beginning. So they started the raping.. I sincerely hope so—but I doubt it. This time might be different. Now listen, boys and girls. No, we do not. In fact very few of us do. The belief we did was once widely held by old stock white Americans, and, I was surprised to find out, by blacks descended from slaves as well.
The reverse is very true. All tested seem to have some European descent. White people had to destroy the Indians. Indians were cruel, illiterate, murdering, thieving savages. The best thing that ever happened in North America was the bringing of civilization by Whites and the utter defeat of the Indians. ALL successful civilizations are based on the successful application of organized violence and force. Civilization is dying now because Whites have temporarily forgotten this eternal verity.
Jews have systematically destroyed civilization and legalized their own criminal traditions. Our entire economy, government, foreign policy and media are simply dictated by Jews. Jews are the self-declared enemies of Whites, and have been the main force for importing millions of third-world savages into White countries. Which means that very soon we will have another version of the old Indian Wars. We will win that one too. Good point. Looks like CIA just did its first operation, Aug. Breaking news. US servicemen killed and wounded, Afghans killed and wounded.
Just like Kiev Maidan, kill some on both sides to get the chaos off to a good start. A CIA specialty. Cicero, the greatest orator and lawyer in Rome learnt how to talk, memorise and argue from the Greeks, but it is wrong to think Romans understood Greek except for an educated few. Athena, the Greek goddess, was also a Frisian. As I understand it, Ancient Latin as spoken in Rome, was to all intents and purposes invented by Renaissance man. No one actually knows how Ancient Latin sounded today or at the time of the Renaissance. And the Latin spoken by the common people of Ancient Rome is thought to be so completely different from anything that is known or accepted as likely today, that most Roman intelligencia of the day would have found it impossible to comprehend.
The problem is that both the Greeks and Romans traded with, and interchanged ideas with, the Phoenicians, who were the only literate and numerate people in the Mediterranean basin. As a result no one has a clear understanding of culture or language especially pronunciation today. The Germans were neither fascist nor racist. Please get your facts right.
The USA today is fascist. Fascists are corporatists…government and business combine to rule and exploit the people. This is how Mussolini defines it and how Biden operates today in conjunction with big pharmaceutical companies. All races, even Jews, fought with and for National Socialist Germany. You are just so brainwashed by the Main Stream Media that you no longer know the truth. And you clearly do not have the ability to think for yourself either. As the Russian general staff admitted at the end of the war, the Wehrmacht used the most effective and up to date tactics on the battlefield but lost because they were only able to field Divisions while the Russians were able to field over Now you can go to any US city and see young Americans nodding off in doorways and street corners, and overdoses have skyrocketed.
Are there some in the ruling class who oppose that? Or is it that they want to abolish cash and put everyone on digital currency, in order to keep tighter control over the plebes, and the drug business relies on cash, so it has to go? Yes, I understand that the US had other reasons to occupy Afghanistan not for the women, just stop with that bs , but the drug running was a big part of it, imo. Same thing happened with all the Trump scrubs. The Soviets readily admit the German qualitative advantage nearly defeated their quantitative advantage.
Missed it by that much! Wagner never promoted The Holocaust. Gotterdammerung is end of gods and men alike and the restoration of primal nature. Hagen is drowned. The Rhinemaidens reclaim the Ring. Erda precedes all mankind, including the gods all simulacra. Those favored by gods, those chosen, are all dust. All of humanity gets wiped from the face of the Earth, not just Israel.
But Wagner would not have liked them. I just heard General McKenzie on tv re the airport situation, and he seemed very proficient, forthcoming, and professional. McKenzie said that they have hi-tech defensive weapons against mortars. Still, if the mortar round should get through and damage that runway, I hope they have some quick-drying cement. Also, for detecting explosive vests that people boarding the plane might be wearing, what they need are dogs.
I wonder if he has dogs. That is a misconception. Rely on your family genealogy to tell you if your great-grandmother was Cherokee, not a DNA test. Elizabeth Warren is a case in point. Its not that complicated. Not just baseline taxes but all the loopholes they can take advantage of. So the middle class gets less and less and less. The poor get taken care of. So yeah its usually only the wealthy or the ppor who want to migrate to the US. Middle class elsewhere tend to prefer to stay home. Every Pentagon General talks smoothly and polished. Why do I read The Saker each and every morning?
Because, first, he puts it out there, and then the comments come. Long live both streams! It sure beats the nonsense that comes out of the MSM. I had to stop reading when this idiot tried to describe the settling and founding of the USA as done by thugs. Not only does this nutbag write about 6, words too many in every article, he just goes off the rails constantly with preposterous nonsense like this. On September 7 the Swedish aid agency Swedish Committee for Afghanistan reported that the previous week US soldiers raided one of its hospitals.
It was poor German logistics together with an inability to deal with the Soviet tactic of concentrating all resources where there was a breakthrough in the German line. The French worked out this tactic in and the Germans never managed to effectively counter it. The Soviets adopted the French development and enhanced it by throwing every available unit in to every breach they forced in the German lines. What really did it ultimately was US logistics in maintaining unbroken continuous materiel supplies to Russia. Whereas the Germans were always short of something: food: ammunition: medicine: men: armour: aircraft etc.
The Germans had strict rules against fraternizing with natives. What source do you base your slander on? Eli Wiesel? Barbara Lippstadt? The cannon fodder division I think. Kind of like for profit prisons. It can be managed like a business. But at least it is entertaining. So, how does this translate into the perspective held by Native Americans and those dragged over the Atlantic Ocean to work the cotton fields…?
Here hundreds of comments lament the Saker swallowing the whole Covid garbage. Just as celebrities were paid to promote the Covid narrative would it be a surprise if Saker and Moon of Alabama were offered a nice cash surprise to go along with the narrative? Since the Ukraine, Saker has pretended to be this military expert but really he gives us nothing we do not already know.
Bad grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes throughout the article and the conclusions are not worth entertaining as even plausible. It reads as though it was translated from Russian and the meaning was lost in translation. For example Hans Peter Richter says, in The Time Of The Young Soldiers , that when he was in hospital recuperating from a wound, he and the others in the ward attempted to gang rape the Russian nurse taking care of them. It was all planned. They surely could have done a safe evacuation. Your Russian is definitely better than his English! You must be a solid linguist. How many languages do you speak, by the way? I have been predicting for many months a sudden massive rise in ISIS attacks to sabotage the Amerikastani withdrawal.
I expected a massive attack on Kabul complete with car bombs and captives beheaded on video by ISIS in an attempt to stop the withdrawal which would have benefitted both Ghani and the Amerikastani state opposed to the withdrawal. Most presidents wait until their second term to worry about legacy, but Biden may not have that long. Keep in mind that the Germans in the west front were Hitler youth.