Rhetoric In Bacons Rebellion, By Alexander

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Rhetoric In Bacons Rebellion, By Alexander

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As previously mentioned, slaves were also a common sight in Philadelphia, New York City, and other ports where they worked in the maritime trades and domestic service. In retribution, 21 slaves were executed and 6 others committed suicide before they could be burned alive. In , another planned rebellion by African slaves, free blacks, and poor whites was uncovered, unleashing a witch-hunt that only stopped after 32 slaves and free blacks and 5 poor whites were executed. Another 70 slaves were deported, likely to the sugar cane fields of the West Indies. Quaker beliefs in radical non-violence and the fundamental equality of all human souls made slavery hard to justify. Most commentators argued that slavery originated in war, where captives were enslaved rather than executed.

To pacifist Quakers, then, the very foundation of slavery was illegitimate. Furthermore Quaker belief in the equality of souls challenged the racial basis of slavery. By , Quakers in Pennsylvania disowned members who engaged in the slave trade, and by slave-owning Quakers could be expelled from their meetings. These local activities in Pennsylvania had broad implications as the decision to ban slavery and slave trading was debated in Quaker meetings throughout the English-speaking world. The free black population in Philadelphia and other northern cities also continually agitated against slavery.

The absence of cash crops like tobacco or rice minimized the economic use of slavery. Every major port in the region participated to some extent in the transatlantic trade — Newport, Rhode Island alone had at least ships active in the trade by — and New England also provided foodstuffs and manufactured goods to West Indian plantations. Democracy in Europe more closely resembled oligarchies rather than republics, with only elite members of society eligible to serve in elected positions.

Most European states did not hold regular elections, with Britain and the Dutch Republic being the two major exceptions. However, even in these countries, only a tiny portion of males could vote. In the North American colonies, by contrast, white male suffrage was nearly universal. In addition to having greater popular involvement, colonial government also had more power in a variety of areas. Assemblies and legislatures regulated businesses, imposed new taxes, cared for the poor in their communities, built roads and bridges, and made most decisions concerning education. Colonial Americans sued often, which in turn led to more power for local judges and more prestige in jury service. Thus, lawyers became extremely important in American society, and in turn, played a greater role in American politics.

American society was less tightly controlled than European society. This led to the rise of various interest groups, each at odds with the other. These various interest groups arose based on commonalities in various areas. One of the major differences between modern politics and colonial political culture was the lack of distinct, stable, political parties. Generally, the various colonial legislatures were divided into factions who either supported or opposed the current governors political ideology.

Political structures in the colonies fell under one of three main categories: provincial, proprietary, and charter. The provincial colonies were the most tightly controlled by the crown. The British king appointed all of the provincial governors. The proprietary colonies had a similar structure, with one important difference: governors were appointed by a lord proprietor, an individual who had purchased or received the rights to the colony from the crown.

This generally led to proprietary colonies having more freedoms and liberties than other colonies in colonial America. The charter colonies had the most complex system of government, formed by political corporations or interest groups who drew up a charter that clearly delineated powers between executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government. As opposed to having governors appointed, the charter colonies elected their own governors from among the property-owning men in the colony. The council was essentially the governors cabinet, often composed of prominent individuals within the colony, such as the head of the militia, or the attorney-general of the colony.

The governor appointed these men, often subject to approval from Parliament. Americans firmly accepted the idea of a social contract, the idea that government was put in place by the people. Philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke pioneered this idea, and there is evidence to suggest that these writers influenced the colonists. While in practice elites controlled colonial politics, in theory many colonists believed in the notion of equality before the law and opposed special treatment for any members of colonial society.

Whether or not African Americans, Native Americans, and women would also be included in this notion of equality before the law was far less clear. In particular, womens role in the family became more complicated. Many historian view this period as a significant time of transition. Widely available land and plentiful natural resources allowed for greater fertility and thus encouraged more people to marry earlier in life. New ideas governing romantic love helped to change the nature of husband-wife relationships. Deriving from the sentimental literary movement, many Americans began to view marriage as an emotionally fulfilling relationship rather than a strictly economic partnership.

For the millions of Americans bound in chattel slavery, marriage remained an informal arrangement rather than a codified legal relationship. For white women, the legal practice of coverture meant that women lost all of their political and economic rights to their husband. Divorce rates rose throughout the s, as did less formal cases of abandonment. Newspapers published advertisements by deserted men and women denouncing their partners publically.

In colonial America, regional differences in daily life impacted the way colonists made and used printed matter. However, all the colonies dealt with threats of censorship and control from imperial supervision. In particular, political content stirred the most controversy. From the establishment of Virginia in , printing was regarded either as unnecessary within such harsh living conditions or it was actively discouraged. The popularity of Nathaniel Bacons uprising was in part due to widely circulated tracts questioning Berkeleys competence. Berkeleys harsh repression of Bacons Rebellion was equally well documented.

William Nuthead, an experienced English printer, set up shop in , although the next governor of the colony, Thomas Culpeper forbade Nuthead from completing a single project. It wasnt until William Parks set up his printing shop in Annapolis in that the Chesapeake had a stable local trade in printing and books. Print culture was very different in New England. Puritans had an established respect for print from the very beginning. Unfortunately, New Englands authors were content to publish in London, making the foundations of Stephen Dayes first print shop in very shaky. Typically printers made their money from printing sheets, not books to be bound. His contemporaries recognized the significance of Dayes printing, and he was awarded acres of land.

The next large project, the first bible to be printed in America, was undertaken by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, published That same year, the Eliot Bible, named for its translator John Eliot, was printed in the Natick dialect of the local Algonquin tribes. Philadelphias rise as the printing capital of the colonies began with two important features: first, the arrival of Benjamin Franklin in , equal parts scholar and businessman, and second, waves of German immigrants created a demand for German-language press.

From the mid s, Christopher Sauer, and later his son, wholly met this demand with German-language newspapers and religious texts. Nevertheless Franklin was a one-man culture of print, revolutionizing the book trade in addition to creating public learning initiatives such as the Library Company and the Academy of Philadelphia. His Autobiography offers one of the most detailed glimpses of life in a print shop available.

Given the flurry of newspapers, pamphlets, and books for sale in Franklins Philadelphia, it is little wonder that in Thomas Paine had his Common Sense printed in hundreds of thousands of copies with the Philadelphia printer Robert Bell. Debates on religious expression continued throughout the 18th century. In a group of New England ministers published a collection of sermons entitled Early Piety. The most famous of them, Increase Mather, wrote the preface. The grandchildren of the first settlers had been born into the comfort of well-established colonies and worried that their faith had suffered.

This sense of inferiority sent colonists looking for a reinvigorated religious experience. The result came to be known as the Great Awakening Only with hindsight does the Great Awakening look like a unified movement. The first revivals began unexpectedly in the Congregational churches of New England in the s and then spread through the s and s to Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists in the other Thirteen Colonies. Different places at different times experienced revivals of different intensities.

Yet in all of these communities colonists discussed the same need to strip their lives of worldly concerns and return to a more pious lifestyle. The form it took was something of a contradiction. Preachers became key figures in encouraging individuals to find a personal relationship with God. Edwards was a theologian who shared the faith of the early Puritans setters. In particular he believed in the idea called predestination that God had decided in advance who was damned and who was saved. However, he worried that his congregation had stopped searching their souls and were merely doing good works to prove they were saved.

With a missionary zeal, Edwards preached against worldly sins and called for his congregation to look inwards for signs of Gods saving grace. The spasms first appeared amongst known sinners in the community. Over the next 6 months the physical symptoms spread to half of the person-congregation. Edwards shared the work of his revival in a widely circulated pamphlet. Over the next decade itinerant preachers were more successfully in spreading the spirit of revival around America. These preachers had the same spiritual goal as Edwards, but brought with them a new religious experience. They abandoned traditional sermons in favor of outside meetings where they could whip up the congregation into an emotional frenzy that might reveal evidence of saving grace.

Many religious leaders were suspicious of the enthusiasm and message of these revivals, but colonists flocked to the spectacle. The most famous itinerant preacher was George Whitefield. According to Whitefield the only type of faith that pleased God was heartfelt. The established churches only encouraged apathy. Whitefield was a former actor with a dramatic style of preaching and a simple message. Thundering against sin and for Jesus Christ, Whitefield invited everyone to be born again. It worked. Through the s he traveled from New York to South Carolina converting ordinary men, women and children.

Contemporaries regularly testified to crowds of thousands and in one case over 20, in Philadelphia. Whitefield and the other itinerant preachers had achieved what Edwards could not, making the revivals popular. Ultimately the religious revivals became a victim of the preachers success. As itinerant preachers became more experimental they alienated as many people as they converted. In one preacher from Connecticut, James Davenport, persuaded his congregation that he had special knowledge from God. To be saved they had to dance naked in circles at night whilst screaming and laughing. Whence we see spiders, flies, or ants entombed and preserved forever in amber, a more than royal tomb. When you wander, as you often delight to do, you wander indeed, and give never such satisfaction as the curious time requires.

This is not caused by any natural defect, but first for want of election, when you, having a large and fruitful mind, should not so much labour what to speak as to find what to leave unspoken. Rich soils are often to be weeded. Letter of Expostulation to Coke. Advancement of Learning. Book i. The sun, which passeth through pollutions and itself remains as pure as before. Book ii. It [Poesy] was ever thought to have some participation of divineness, because it doth raise and erect the mind by submitting the shews of things to the desires of the mind. Cleanness of body was ever deemed to proceed from a due reverence to God. The World. Who then to frail mortality shall trust But limns on water, or but writes in dust. What then remains but that we still should cry For being born, and, being born, to die?

From his Will. My Lord St. Albans said that Nature did never put her precious jewels into a garret four stories high, and therefore that exceeding tall men had ever very empty heads. Like the strawberry wives, that laid two or three great strawberries at the mouth of their pot, and all the rest were little ones. Cato said the best way to keep good acts in memory was to refresh them with new. Note 1. As aromatic plants bestow No spicy fragrance while they grow; But crushed or trodden to the ground, Diffuse their balmy sweets around. Oliver Goldsmith : The Captivity, act i. The good are better made by ill, As odours crushed are sweeter still. Samuel Rogers : Jacqueline, stanza 3.

Note 2. Robert Burton quoted : Anatomy of Melancholy, part iii. Note 3. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes; Men would be angels, angels would be gods. Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell, Aspiring to be angels, men rebel. Alexander Pope : Essay on Man, ep. Note 4. There are some remedies worse than the disease. Note 5. Who are a little wise the best fools be. John Donne : Triple Fool. A little skill in antiquity inclines a man to Popery; but depth in that study brings him about again to our religion. The True Church Antiquary. A little learning is a dangerous thing. Note 6. Kings are like stars: they rise and set; they have The worship of the world, but no repose. Percy Bysshe Shelley : Hellas. Note 7. Note 8. Every man is the architect of his own fortune.

Note 9. Fortune is painted blind, with a muffler afore her eyes, to signify to you that Fortune is blind. Note God the first garden made, and the first city Cain. The servant of God in affliction. The titles of Epaphroditus. The relations of believers. The attachment of fellow soldiers. The sickness of Epaphroditus. Recovery from sickness. Why God's servants are afflicted. The succour of the saints is. The Christian's duty to his ministers. Returning labourers to be welcomed with joy. The risk of Christian work. Life preferred to service. The Biblical Illustrator, Electronic Database. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Meade, M. This unity is inward and consists of harmonious spiritual feeling.

It is also outward and visible. The spirit of vain-glory, self-preference, self-interest. It was from envy the brethren of Joseph hated him. The same was at the root of Absalom's and Adonijah's rebellion. This was rebuked by Christ when He set a little child in the midst of His contentious disciples. We are not willing to admit this as the cause in our own case. We persuade ourselves that real grievances are the cause, and that conscience is prompting us to be valiant for the truth. But these considerations, when genuine, would indeed lead to plainness of speech, but would, in their end and aim, promote rather than retard brotherly love and union. Grievances are only occasions for forbearance. The spirit, then, of humiliation which will not stand upon claims and rights, but readily concede them, is that which will check disunion and promote unity.

Conclusion: 1. Make this a means of trying your own spirits. Do we wish to learn this necessary disposition? Without this vain is our profession of vital Christianity. The excellence of Christian unity E. Does Christian unity consist in the union of Christians in one corporate, visible organization? It should do, and one day will do. But even this desirable object by itself would not secure true unity. It would be but a body without life — the unity of the church yard.

The only true unity is that of the text, one of soul and brotherly affection. It gives peace; promotes strength and usefulness; commands attention and imitation. Notice the individual man. The soul is a little kingdom. In it there dwell a variety of faculties; there are fears, hopes, likes, dislikes; appetites to urge and principles to check; self-will to prompt, self-interest to restrain; passions to hurry away, conscience to control, etc. When these are in discord what a "troubled sea" there is. But when the Spirit of God is received and obeyed, what a blessed harmony is the result — "a peace that passeth under standing.

Take the family. Let love reign there, sustained and cherished by mutual forbearance in the fear of God, parents honoured, sons and daughters kind and helpful, and how the power and usefulness of the family are increased. It is not to have many hands at a rope which will pull the weight, but all moved by the same impulse and pulling together. Suppose the same to prevail in a parish. Why should it not? It was so once at Jerusalem, and would now as then Acts result in personal happiness and numerous conversions. If the same obtained throughout the world the effect would be irresistible. It is a proof of being unspiritual and carnal, as it was in the case of the Corinthians, and in some cases of being unconverted.

How dwelleth the love of God in the fomenters of strife and discord. It is a hindrance to grace, comfort, and usefulness. It is a stumbling block to the world. Love promotes unity Life of Brainerd. He found an inexpressibly sweet love to those that he looked upon as belonging to Christ, beyond almost all that he ever felt before, so that to use his own words "it seemed like a piece of heaven to have one of them near him. How unity is obtained Dr.

When the tide is out you may have noticed, as you rambled among the rocks, little pools with little fishes in them. To the shrimp, in such a pool, his foot depth of salt water is all the ocean for the time being. He has no dealings with his neighbour shrimp in the adjacent pool, though it may be only a few inches of sand that divide them; but when the rising ocean begins to lip over the margin of the lurking place, one pool joins another, their various tenants meet, and by-and-by, in place of their little patch of standing water, they have the ocean's boundless fields to roam in.

When the tide is out — when religion is low — the faithful are to be found insulated, here a few and there a few, in the little standing pools that stud the beach, having no dealings with their neighbours of the adjoining pools, calling them Samaritans, and fancying that their own little communion includes all that are precious in God's sight. They forget, for a time, that there is a vast and expansive ocean rising — every ripple brings it nearer — a mightier communion, even the communion of saints, which is to engulf all minor considerations, and to enable the fishes of all pools — the Christians — the Christians of all denominations — to come together.

When, like a flood, the Spirit flows into the Churches, Church will join to Church, and saint will join to saint, and all will rejoice to find that if their little pools have perished, it is not by the scorching summer's drought, nor the casting in of earthly rubbish, but by the influx of that boundless sea whose glad waters touch eternity, and in whose ample depths the saints in heaven, as well as the saints on earth, have room enough to range. The Christian doctrine of self W. Pope, D. The strength of the appeal lies in the completeness of its expressions. Christ gives the strength of the argument: love gives that argument its tenderness. Here follows another pair of appeals, but now the Holy Spirit is the strength of the invocation. That fellowship is the ground of your self-renouncing devotion and the power which renders you capable of it.

Renounce, therefore, every selfish impediment and devote yourself to the common cause afresh. Thus the apostle's joy would be fulfilled. He was already happy in their devotion and in the fruits of their fellowship. But he had heard of the risings of a fatal spirit among them. His joy could not reach its consummation without their united and persevering devotion. In its unity. Here we have self-love in the great uniting object of Christ's kingdom, subordinate in humility to the honour of others, and losing its essential selfishness in the perpetual combination of the advantage of others with its own.

These three are one. Self-renunciation is the secret of unity in the Church, of humility in the individual, and of charity in all the relations of life. In its divisions. This unity of purpose is either the result of a common love set upon the same object — "having the same love," or is shown by the concentration of the faculties of the soul on that object — "of one accord in the promotion of one thing. They are to avoid the conduct he condemns at Rome — strife was to be kept out of their community and vanity out of their character. A mind clothed with humility cannot desire preeminence, and cannot, therefore, contend against others to bring them down, or seek vain self-elevation for its own sake. In the exercise of humility they were to regard not that every one's moral character was better than their own, but that others were mars worthy of distinction in the Church.

Nothing is our own absolutely and apart from others. Our things are ours only in union with the things of ethers. We are not forbidden to seek our own interests, but only in common with the good of all around us. Christian concord R. The "therefore" connects the passage with the "conversation worthy of the gospel. The central precept is in verse 2 — "That ye be like minded," which suggests the subject of the whole. Mutual and all-pervading love — "Having the same love. Among the members of a congregation it should be peculiarly strong. To its prevalence will correspond congregational life and health.

Frequent and close intercourse in a large city church is impossible — all the more necessary, therefore, to combine in the various schemes of Christian effort. One of the most valuable results of Sabbath Schools, Dorcas Societies, etc. Union or accord of souls minding the same thing — the basis of Christian concord — oneness of view in respect to all matters of vital moment. Having this oneness of view Christians will also in the degree in which they yield up their hearts to the common faith have a substantial oneness of disposition and resolution.

The "one thing" is — 1 The advancement of the kingdom of God in ourselves through advance in the beauty and strength of godliness. Mutual helpfulness. Christian love cannot flourish apart from Christian energy. A monastery is a hot bed of jealousy and discord, and the more closely a denomination or Church approaches this character in inactivity and uselessness, the more open it will be to dissensions. The fulfilment of the apostle's joy. Each reference to their possible religious experience is like a rod of Divine power calling out a stream of sympathy and affection.

If Paul's joy was augmented by the union of the Philippians, much more will Christ's joy be fulfilled by the answer to His prayer "that they all may be one. The great causes of dissention in any society are here indicated. These evils are only to be removed by the cultivation of the opposite virtues of humility, which is an exclusively Christian grace. This is not meanness of spirit. While it recognizes facts as they are in, human nature, it involves a profound respect for man's possible self. This lowliness of mind leads each to esteem others better than self Romans ; Ephesians ; 1 Peter This does not imply blindness to one's own ability and attainments, or to the deficiencies of others; but a humble view of self will inspire to help others to fill their place of usefulness — "to please them for their good to edification.

It will also lead every man to look not on his own things, and to cherish a spirit of unselfishness in regard to others. Christian unity J. Paul's appeal J. Parker, D. The "if" is not here the sign of doubt or hesitation, but rather of assured certainty. When persons wish to disclose the vastness of an assembly, they sometimes say, "If there was one present, there were two thousand. Consolation, comfort of love, etc.

This appeal is a burst of tenderness. Affection delights in repetition. Love amplifies its expressions to the utmost; it is the effort of an eloquent rhetorician, artless, yet full of art. There are expressions full of summer light and beauty which are only revealed to the heart. Paul having laid his basis in the very heart of Christ, makes an appeal — "fulfil ye my joy. It appears an infinite descent from Christ to Paul, but, in reality, it is no descent; in this argument Christ's purpose and Paul's desire are identical. The soul has moods which bring it close to the heart of God. Paul appears before the Philippians more as saint than logician, and in that capacity Christ and the "servant" are one.

The apostle likens his joy to a cup that is nearly full, and intimates that unanimity in the Church would fill it perfectly — make it overflow. See the importance even of a single element. An atom may be necessary to perfection. Beauty may depend on the straightness or curve of a single line. The apostle's appeal H. Airay, D. He exhorteth them to be like minded, having their affections Romans , likings, and desires so set on the same things as to fulfil his joy. Philippians , yet my joy is not full so long as I hear of your contentions. Pastors ought to labour to repress such enormities among their people as hinder the course of Christian conversation by beseeching as though they desired no other recompense than that such disorders might be reformed.

They are fathers to their flocks 1 Corinthians ; 1 John Sometimes, however, sternness must be used. Paul did not deal with the Galatians as with the Philippians, nor with some of the Corinthians 1 Corinthians To yield to the holy desires of one another is an effectual token of Christian love towards one another John ; Philemon Men are ready enough to yield to wicked enticings Proverbs What proof of this many give, let their contentions and divisions witness. The godly requests of God's saints afflicted for Christ's sake should move in us such compassion as that we should gladly hearken and yield to them.

Observe — 1. The godly pastor's joy is to be in his people, whatever his own case may be. That that joy is not full as long as there is anything amiss amongst his people. That he should be admonished to labour that nothing be amiss either touching doctrine or practice, so that his joy may be full. That there was something amiss here is proved by the exhortation; whence learn — 1 That, what the state of the best churches, so of the most holy men is.

There they are perfected. He exhorteth them to be "like minded" Romans , having their affections, likings, desires, set on the same things 1 Corinthians ; Romans Are not Jews, Turks, Pharisees, etc. The necessity of this is seen — 1 From the fact that we have "one Lord, one faith, one baptism," etc. Ephesians Let us, therefore, beware how we dissent about matters of less moment when we are agreed in greater. Love — 1 In respect of the object. Love the same Church, gospel, truth. Where one loves one thing, and another another, distractions and desolations ensue. Mutual harmony W. We hear a great deal about the harmony of the spheres. That is poetry, but let us try and translate that poetry into practice.

It is a painful thing to take up a newspaper now-a-days! Every one seems to be fighting, abroad and at home. There is too much bitter controversy. We want to realize that if there is a mutual work to be done and faith to do it, there must be mutual love to supply the fire. Of course, in the main there can be no good work done unless the great verities are believed in by us all. You have to live in harmony; your very nature is to be harmonious within you. You may be a very inharmonious man in yourself. You may be affectionate. We have all got to contribute something to the harmony. I do not want, in a choir of musicians, all to play the violin; I should not like to listen to a band of flutes. To be all of one accord does not mean all doing the same thing or playing the same instrument.

One man has his special gift. But in all this variety there is harmony; and is not that one of the most beautiful things in the world. The worst of it is that one bad musician can spoil a choir. One cantankerous person in the household can upset everything. One may injure many! Now variety is intended by God. There are men emphatically endowed by special gifts for mission work; some have tender sympathies and they can be friends to the fatherless and widow; some have gifts for calling out the energies of the young.

But there must be harmony in all the variety — "being of one accord. Everything must be subservient to great ends. There must always be the Chorus Leader. What we want is the harmony of true, beautiful, religious charity. By subserviency I mean everything uniting for Christ's ends. If I have no pare in my hand or foot, but if I have a headache — what then? Where is the harmony within me? When the blood flows healthily, the eye is clear, the step elastic, the brain vigorous, the appetite sharp and good, and the sleep is restful — all is well! But if one of the members gets out of order, it is all misery.

The head looks at the foot and says, "Why don't you get better? The members are not of one accord. You may lift that thought up into the highest regions of all, and you may realize that if there is to be accord and harmony amongst men in the Church we must all take care of one another, it will not do to neglect anybody. You must look out and take care of the humblest member as well as the highest. It is so in a nation. A nation is in harmony when the rich sympathize with and help the poor, and the wise help the ignorant. A prosperous Church or nation is where there is health in the body politic.

The world likes harmony; it does not know how it is attuned; but it likes it. I have seen in a picture gallery a poor fellow who comes in a sort of semi-fustian; he is no connoisseur, but there was harmony he could detect, and he liked it. Rest in God. We have the mind of Christ. And that is heaven begun on earth. There is no harmony in a piano of itself. The mind makes the harmony.

I cannot make harmony out of the piano; it is produced by the spirit that comes through the fingers. We must be moulded after the mind of Christ. You may have a violin, flute, piano, and harp, but you must have one chord. Christian union -- strength J. The King of the Lacedaemonians being once asked why it was that Sparta was not surrounded by walls, is said to have pointed to the citizens, all filled with one and the same enthusiasm — one united band — and to have answered, "These are the walls of the Spartan State. With these, thus separate and yet one, all enemies can be repelled.

Its citizens, when they are of one mind and heart, are its unassailable bulwarks. The gates of hell cannot prevail against it. Thus, when warfare is over and victory is won, in the city of Peace, where no bulwarks can ever be needed, those who have overcome will join in — "The undisturbed song of pure consent, Aye sung before the sapphire-coloured throne. Christian union how obtained E. Those whose inmost hearts, warmed and expanded by the love of Christ, are welded together, as the glowing iron from the furnace, being softened and rendered adhesive by the heat, and so are joined in love spiritual, as the different members of the same body are joined in the union of nature — these hold the same love, these love as brethren; and there is no tie so close, so firm, and so enduring.

Every other union is cemented by the cement of earth, but this by the true attraction of cohesion which is from heaven. Shoulder to shoulder T. Consolation in Christ C. The language of man has received a new coinage of words since his perfection in Eden. Adam could scarce have understood the word consolation, because he did not understand the word sorrow. He soon needed it, but did not find it like the first promise which spake of Christ. And consolation can be found nowhere but in Him. The Holy Spirit is revealed to us as the Comforter, and it is His business to console; but Christ is the consolation. There are times when we look on the past with deepest grief, with fond regrets for the lost Paradise.

To meet this, consider Christ in old eternity, as the covenant Head, stipulating to redeem thee; and think of the anticipating mercies of God. If your minds dwell in sadness on the fact that you are absent from the Lord, think of the great truth that Christ of old had delights with the sons of men, and delights to have fellowship with them now. Remember that he appeared to Abraham in the plains of Mamre, to Jacob at the brook Jabbok, to Joshua as Captain of the Lord's host, to the three Hebrew children, and so today.

Pursue the Master's footsteps as He comes out of the invisible glory and wears the visible garment of humanity. You are tried and troubled, but what better consolation can you have than that Christ is one with you in your nature and suffered all that you are now suffering. Follow Him to the grave. You, through fear of death are all your lifetime subject to bondage, but surely you may find an easy couch where your master slept.

But this consolation is as naught compared with that derived from His resurrection. Be not faithless, but believing. See Him ascending to His glory, and anticipate the joy you will have in His triumph. He went as your representative. Behold Him, the great High Priest, the advocate with the Father; and sending down consolations upon His people. But He shall come again as King and complete his ministry of consolation for body as well as for soul.

He is a surpassing consolation. Talk about the consolations of philosophy; the charms of music; the comfort of friendship; the joys of hope; we have all these and others in superabundance in Him. His consolations are unfailing. All other wells are dry; but this flows in an unceasing stream. His consolations are everlasting; in youth, manhood, old age, in the prospect of death and eternity. They are always within a believer's reach, "a very present help in time of trouble.

Not if you are a self-sufficient moralist trusting in your own righteousness. You are trusting in a lie, and Christ will never be friends with a lie. Not if you are a backslider, unless you return, to which Christ invites you. Consolation in Christ S. When anguish took hold of us because of God's judgments we knew not whither to flee. We tried to stifle fear and silence conscience, but our misery increased. We then tried to soothe conscience by reformation, but we found no comfort. We resorted to the means of grace and called upon God, but the answer was, "Cursed is every one that continueth not," etc.

Then almost in despair Jesus appeared to us, the burden was removed, and we were made happy. He responds, "Yes: His yoke is easy," etc. All our ability to perform duty, and all our acceptance of it, are from Him, and we glory in Him as our righteousness and strength. I have had the example of Christ before me, His patience with me, His everlasting arms underneath me. His word or His smile have either removed my afflictions or inspired me with fortitude and joy to bear them. What do You say? I could never see any such excellence in Him as to induce me to give up my present enjoyment.

Inferences: From what has been said — 1. We should thank God for His unspeakable gift. We see what enemies they are to themselves who are enemies to Christ. How greatly they mistake who represent religion as gloomy. Let your lives declare this consolation. If there be such consolation here, what must heaven be? The tender sympathy of Christ Talmage. Yoo, of Kernartin, one morning went out and saw a beggar asleep on his doorstep.

The beggar had been all night in the cold. The next night St. Yoo compelled this beggar to come into the house and sleep in the saint's bed, while St. Yoo passed the night on the doorstep in the cold. Somebody asked him why that eccentricity? He replied, "It isn't an eccentricity; I want to know how the poor suffer, I want to know their agonies, that I may sympathize with them, and therefore I slept on this cold step last night. Any comfort of love A communion discourse J. Butler, D. The comfort of love — when love is mutual — no one questions. The dependent child, in the arms of the loving mother, experiences it. There is no comfort in selfishness, indifference, and hate. As over against all the reasonings of the enemies of Christianity, there stands out in bold relief this unanswerable fact, that Christ comes with comfort — the com fort of love — to a world full of suffering.

The mission of our Saviour, as put by Isaiah Isaiah , is to "comfort all that mourn" Luke As light to the eye, as food and water to the body, more than as medicine to the sick, is this Divine comfort of love to a world full of broken hearts. Stoicism, born before the story of the manger was told, teaching indifference alike to pain and pleasure, illustrates the highest achievement of human wisdom; but it offers no comfort to a suffering world. The Lord's Supper is an object lesson — the culminating expression of God's comforting love. Standing by the cross, we grasp the full measure of God's comforting love. It is not strange that men with honest love have struggled to compass this mystery, but it is strange that men should have converted that which is the comfort of love into a battlefield.

The emotional in Christianity J. Thomas, D. Notice — I. At one time men have been bound by monotonous rituals and artificial formularies, and at another period by rigid theological statements, the result of anatomical analysis — a paring and cutting which takes the life and leaves the letter. Real religion is full of emotion. Bead the Psalms and see how they abound in it. This is seen where self is made the sole object of thought. The bitterest torment is the torment of self. The word miser, for example, means "miserable. Love is a comfort in the discoveries it makes of the new possibilities of the soul. Think of the grace of tears! I have seen a man who had been elbowing his way through life amid its rough and selfish oppositions, hammering his heart hard, as it were, lest it by softening should become weak.

Such a man, made callous by contact with an unsympathetic world, I have seen stand by the coffin of his child. His stony heart broke, and he was glad to weep. The bondage of the hard, real world was sundered, its barriers dissolved, and he recognized that the long-hidden power to feel was not destroyed. Love is a comfort, inasmuch as it is restful and quiet.

Ambition, anger, and jealousy bring pain. These are costly indulgences, for they cause sleeplessness and rob one of strength. But there is comfort in love. The mother bears her babe on her breast, and cradles it in her soul. She pastures her eyes in its face, and its beautiful smile is a reflection of the serene and joyful sense of possession which she herself feels. O the luxury of that love! If in a palace, its gilded wealth is but tinsel in the atmosphere of such love. Love beautifies the deformed body and withered features.

More than that, it trusts against hope. A bridge was begun in California, over a quagmire. Piles were driven and earth was brought, but every effort failed, till finally a simple platform of boards was constructed, on which yielding support people were floated across. So love, with its strong, instinctive trust, floats across chasms that mere reason can never bridge. There is comfort in love, because it harmonizes everything. What a world this would be if love reigned! There would be none to chafe and crowd and irritate. What oil does love pour on troubled waters! I recall the bright tranquillity of an aged grandmother, whose active days were over and who could only sit in her chair and look her benedictions on us all. That smile of hers lubricated all the wheels of daily life; it dried up all tears as the sun dries up the showers, and shed an atmosphere of peace and harmony through the household.

Love takes hold on the infinite. Ambition disappoints and pleasure cloys, but love never dies. It has its successive growths. The child's love is fickle and selfish; that of the youthful pair is founded on mutual esteem and gets chilled, but that of a mother yearns to give its best treasures even to the prodigal, and to love him back to purity. There are no mathematics, no question of "seventy times" of forgiveness in such love. It is a picture of the love of God, and lifts us towards the Infinite. True love inspires the missionary, who, like Carey or Martin, goes to far-off lands with the gospel, or to the loathsomely sick in hospital, or to the brutal in prison.

This is the secret of Paul's boast that he could do all things, for, to him who thus loveth, "all things are possible. Let nothing be done through strife or vain glory Philippians Unanimity J. The spirit of this appeal is that of profound and tender sympathy with Christ. When history gives up her dead it will be found that where the rod has conquered its tens, love has won its thousands. The anxiety for entire oneness in the Church is in harmony with Christ's prayer. Paul was wont to call for this. Absence of union is a reflection on the uniting force. Where, then, there is disunion, it is plain that there is either not sufficient of this love, or that it is unequal to the exigencies of the case.

Hence the grandeur and urgency of the appeal, "If there be any consolation in Christ;" as though he had said, "Remember that Christ's love is on trial. The world has a right to compare the deeds of the servant with the spirit of the Master, because the connection is moral and involves responsibility. A recently erected edifice, e. How do men treat the fact? They instantly connect it with the architect or the builder. When a chemical experiment has failed men blame the manipulator.

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