Catherine The Great: A Powerful Ruler In The World

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Catherine The Great: A Powerful Ruler In The World

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When the overpainting was cleaned in , the ancient image was revealed to be a very high-quality icon, probably produced in Constantinople. The icon, traditionally half-length when in a semi-dome , [11] which became adopted for panel icons also, depicts Christ fully frontal with a somewhat melancholy and stern aspect, with the right hand raised in blessing or, in the early encaustic panel at Saint Catherine's Monastery, the conventional rhetorical gesture that represents teaching. The left hand holds a closed book with a richly decorated cover featuring the Cross , representing the Gospels. An icon where Christ has an open book is called "Christ the Teacher", a variant of the Pantocrator. Christ is bearded, his brown hair centrally parted, and his head is surrounded by a halo.

The icon usually has a gold ground comparable to the gilded grounds of Byzantine mosaics. Mosaic of Palatine Chapel in Palermo. A miniature Russian icon of Christ Pantocrator, richly decorated with pearls and enamel , c. Christ Pantocrator in the Orthodox Church of St. Alexander Nevsky, Belgrade , Serbia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A specific depiction of Christ. For other uses, see Pantokrator disambiguation. Christianity portal. Hall pp. Catherine , p. Latourette, Kenneth Scott, A History of Christianity , Volume 1, "Beginnings to ". Revised edition. Chatzidakis, Manolis September Gerry Walters, tr. The Art Bulletin Galavaris, George Jan 1, The Icon in the Life of the Church , Brill Academic Publishers.

ISBN Beyond military conciliation, he appealed to the Rajput people by ruling in a spirit of cooperation and tolerance. Akbar also formed powerful matrimonial alliances. When he married Hindu princesses—including Jodha Bai, the eldest daughter of the house of Jaipur, as well princesses of Bikaner and Jaisalmer—their fathers and brothers became members of his court and were elevated to the same status as his Muslim fathers- and brothers-in-law. While marrying off the daughters of conquered Hindu leaders to Muslim royalty was not a new practice, it had always been viewed as a humiliation. In Akbar revised his tax system, separating revenue collection from military administration. Each subah , or governor, was responsible for maintaining order in his region, while a separate tax collector collected property taxes and sent them to the capital.

This created checks and balances in each region since the individuals with the money had no troops, and the troops had no money, and all were dependent on the central government. The central government then doled out fixed salaries to both military and civilian personnel according to rank. Akbar was religiously curious. He regularly participated in the festivals of other faiths, and in in Fatehpur Sikri—a walled city that Akbar had designed in the Persian style—he built a temple ibadat-khana where he frequently hosted scholars from other religions, including Hindus, Zoroastrians, Christians, yogis, and Muslims of other sects.

He allowed the Jesuits to construct a church at Agra and discouraged the slaughter of cattle out of respect for Hindu custom. Not everyone appreciated these forays into multiculturalism, however, and many called him a heretic. In , a mazhar , or declaration, was issued that granted Akbar the authority to interpret religious law, superseding the authority of the mullahs. The faith centered around Akbar as a prophet or spiritual leader, but it did not procure many converts and died with Akbar.

Unlike his father, Humayun, and grandfather Babur, Akbar was not a poet or diarist, and many have speculated that he was illiterate. Nonetheless, he appreciated the arts, culture and intellectual discourse, and cultivated them throughout the empire. Akbar is known for ushering in the Mughal style of architecture, which combined elements of Islamic, Persian and Hindu design, and sponsored some of the best and brightest minds of the era—including poets, musicians, artists, philosophers and engineers—in his courts at Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri.

Some of Akbar's more well-known courtiers are his navaratna , or "nine gems. Akbar died in Some sources say Akbar became fatally ill with dysentery, while others cite a possible poisoning, likely traced to Akbar's son Jahangir. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.

Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from to B.

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