Frederick Taylor Scientific Management
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Frederick Taylor: Theories, Principles \u0026 Contributions to Management
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Each of these tenets had to be adhered to strictly in order to achieve the goals of the organization. These studies were undertaken in order to determine the best way of doing work. This theory proved very useful as certain industries where each product had to be produced identically to the next one and that too in double-quick time. Stop motion cameras studied the time taken ideally to produce a single unit of the product and the time taken was adjusted against any stoppages due to power failure, bad weather, and the ideal time to complete the task was communicated to the entire enterprise as the ideal standard to complete the job.
As a cultural touchstone, the aspect has still remained intact as top companies have the most challenging recruitment processes. Utmost care is taken by the best companies to choose resources that have the potential to last the test of time and market. It is these resources that prove to deliver winning solutions that can outsmart and outfox competition. This theory had a profound impact on business discourse in the post-world war 1 era. Those were the days before the great economic depression of when countries like America were experiencing high economic growth due to free trade.
Yes, some critics of the theory did refer to it as the scientific system of sweating as it applied perfectly to manufacturing, mining industries where blue-collar work was more prevalent as compared to the pink collar and white-collar jobs. Conversion of craft production to mass production coupled with knowledge transfer between workers and subsequent decantation of this knowledge into tools, processes, and documentation. Taylor argues that there should be a machine like operation in an organization portrayed by employees in order to ensure efficiency which is directly proportional to profitability.
Scientific management theory asserts that workers should be trained and scientifically selected. This enhances increased profitability in an organization. This is because a highly trained and qualified worker means quality production Taylor, , Also, according to the theory of scientific management, the employer should ensure that there is maximum cooperation with the employee. This gives an assurance of perfection in the job.
In addition, each work performed by every employee should be tested to ensure that it has utilized the best procedure. Scientific management has a clear and strict approach. The management used in an organization should have a structural system that defines the functions of various departments, groups, and individuals. Taylor believed that the best job in an organization could be produced by using a perfect method, which could be implemented by the employees.
Through this belief, Taylor wanted to create specialization in the organizations in order for each employee to specialize in one line of production leading to increased profitability. Scientific management focuses on the activities performed by the workers in an organization. The importance of this was that scientific management makes the workers or employees efficient. This increases the production capacity of the company. This helps in meeting the objectives of all stakeholders. In his analysis, Taylor focused on time and motion used in the achievement of organizational goals. This is derived from the ability of the organization to maximize the efforts all stakeholders in the organization. Secondly, scientific management has led to development of offshore markets.
This has resulted from its ability to analyze techniques used in labor within the organization. The use of these labor techniques is what makes most of the functions that were done in United States to be done oversees. On the same note, scientific management has come up with methods of production that are most effective and cheap Harris, p. Again, due to the discovery of the theory of scientific management, companies and industries have been able to produce high total quality products.
Scientific management has led to quality improvement that has greatly improved the profitability of the company Giovanni, , pp. For example, industries like the automotive and the military industries have greatly improved their product quality. This has been achieved through the use of techniques introduced by Taylor in his discovery of scientific management. The discovery and implementation of scientific management in the organization has created division of labor among the employees. Division of labor in an organization produces better results and high standards. This helps to create better productivity in the organization and contribute to enhanced product quality. This is because every employee works in the field where he is skilled at.
The organizations also benefit from the scientific management in that it helps them come up with a good and organized organizational structure. This approach of creating a good organizational structure was meant to improve efficiency and give employees a motivation right from the lower level. Ritzer , p. This had an enormous effect on the social aspect of life of the employees as it increased the discipline in the working area Harris, , p. Most companies in the 21st century have adopted the use scientific management in their operations. A good example is the American fast food restaurant that is known worldwide because of its advanced management skills.
In his book, Thomas , p. Ford said believed that the profitability of the business organization could be improved by having every employee working according to an assembly line. Ford implemented this in a car manufacturing industry after Taylor invented the idea of division of labor. For example, if a garment factory is operated by each operator in order to manufacture a garment from start to finish, the change of tasks and tools will be lost for a long time. On the other hand, if you organize the activities so that an operator cuts all the garments and another one takes care of sewing them, it is possible to reduce the time of manufacture and to increase the profits of the company. Today it seems very obvious that before undertaking a task we must plan what the steps will be to develop it.
However, it was not always so. Taylor was the first to estimate that in order to create any product in less time, it was necessary to plan the steps to be followed and the responsibilities of all the participants in that process. Taylor noted that in industries it was common for managers to not know how their products were made and leave the whole process in the hands of employees. Therefore, one of the principles of its scientific approach was that managers should observe and learn from all the processes of their company in order to plan and control them, making sure that they were being carried out in the most efficient way.
In these factories it was customary that all workers knew how to do everything and were not experts in anything concrete, which made many mistakes. Taylor noted that all workers had different skills, so it was necessary to assign them a single activity that they could develop very well instead of many tasks they did poorly. As already mentioned, one of the principles of Taylor's scientific approach was to select employees according to their abilities to develop a particular activity. This implied that both employees and managers will be trained in specific tasks to be attractive to companies, a practice that continues to this day.
Before Taylor, the managers had no role in the development of the work and left all the responsibility in the hands of the operators.