Marx And Mussolini: The Manifesto Of The Feudal System
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The Feudal System And The Domesday Book - Medieval History
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In Marxist philosophy , the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society. Joseph Schumpeter saw the incorporation of new elements into an expanding bourgeoisie, particularly entrepreneurs who took risks to bring innovation to industries and the economy through the process of creative destruction , as the driving force behind the capitalist engine.
Hence, since the 19th century, the term "bourgeoisie" usually is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper-class of a capitalist society. Historically, the medieval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs walled market-towns , the craftsmen , artisans , merchants , and others, who constituted "the bourgeoisie". They were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production. As the economic managers of the raw materials, the goods, and the services, and thus the capital money produced by the feudal economy, the term "bourgeoisie" evolved to also denote the middle class — the businessmen and businesswomen who accumulated, administered, and controlled the capital that made possible the development of the bourgs into cities.
In the late s, the shortened term "bougie" or "boujee" an intentional misspelling became slang , particularly among African-Americans for a person of meager or middle class means doing pretentious activities eating avocado toast or virtue signalling driving a Prius as an affectation of the upper-class. The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and Western Europe developed into cities dedicated to commerce. This urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds.
Guilds arose when individual businessmen such as craftsmen, artisans and merchants conflicted with their rent-seeking feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than previously agreed. In the event, by the end of the Middle Ages c. According to the Marxist view of history, during the 17th and 18th centuries, the bourgeoisie were the politically progressive social class who supported the principles of constitutional government and of natural right , against the Law of Privilege and the claims of rule by divine right that the nobles and prelates had autonomously exercised during the feudal order. The English Civil War —51 , the American War of Independence —83 , and French Revolution —99 were partly motivated by the desire of the bourgeoisie to rid themselves of the feudal and royal encroachments on their personal liberty, commercial prospects, and the ownership of property.
In the 19th century, the bourgeoisie propounded liberalism , and gained political rights, religious rights, and civil liberties for themselves and the lower social classes; thus the bourgeoisie was a progressive philosophic and political force in Western societies. After the Industrial Revolution — , by the midth century the great expansion of the bourgeoisie social class caused its stratification — by business activity and by economic function — into the haute bourgeoisie bankers and industrialists and the petite bourgeoisie tradesmen and white-collar workers.
Moreover, by the end of the 19th century, the capitalists the original bourgeoisie had ascended to the upper class, while the developments of technology and technical occupations allowed the rise of working-class men and women to the lower strata of the bourgeoisie; yet the social progress was incidental. According to Karl Marx , the bourgeois during the Middle Ages usually was a self-employed businessman — such as a merchant, banker, or entrepreneur — whose economic role in society was being the financial intermediary to the feudal landlord and the peasant who worked the fief , the land of the lord. Yet, by the 18th century, the time of the Industrial Revolution — and of industrial capitalism, the bourgeoisie had become the economic ruling class who owned the means of production capital and land , and who controlled the means of coercion armed forces and legal system, police forces and prison system.
In such a society, the bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production allowed them to employ and exploit the wage-earning working class urban and rural , people whose only economic means is labour; and the bourgeois control of the means of coercion suppressed the sociopolitical challenges by the lower classes, and so preserved the economic status quo; workers remained workers, and employers remained employers. In the 19th century, Marx distinguished two types of bourgeois capitalist: i the functional capitalists, who are business administrators of the means of production; and ii rentier capitalists whose livelihoods derive either from the rent of property or from the interest -income produced by finance capital, or both.
Besides describing the social class who owns the means of production , the Marxist use of the term "bourgeois" also describes the consumerist style of life derived from the ownership of capital and real property. Marx acknowledged the bourgeois industriousness that created wealth, but criticised the moral hypocrisy of the bourgeoisie when they ignored the alleged origins of their wealth: the exploitation of the proletariat, the urban and rural workers.
Further sense denotations of "bourgeois" describe ideological concepts such as "bourgeois freedom", which is thought to be opposed to substantive forms of freedom; "bourgeois independence"; "bourgeois personal individuality"; the "bourgeois family"; et cetera, all derived from owning capital and property see The Communist Manifesto , In English, the term bourgeoisie is often used to denote the middle classes. In fact, the French term encompasses both the upper and middle classes,  a misunderstanding which has occurred in other languages as well.
The bourgeoisie in France and many French-speaking countries consists of five evolving social layers: petite bourgeoisie , moyenne bourgeoisie , grande bourgeoisie , haute bourgeoisie and ancienne bourgeoisie. The petite bourgeoisie is the equivalent of the modern-day middle class, or refers to "a social class between the middle class and the lower class: the lower middle class". The moyenne bourgeoisie or middle bourgeoisie contains people who have solid incomes and assets, but not the aura of those who have become established at a higher level.
They tend to belong to a family that has been bourgeois for three or more generations. The moyenne bourgeoisie is the equivalent of the British and American upper-middle classes. The grande bourgeoisie are families that have been bourgeois since the 19th century, or for at least four or five generations. This bourgeois family has acquired an established historical and cultural heritage over the decades. The names of these families are generally known in the city where they reside, and their ancestors have often contributed to the region's history.
These families are respected and revered. They belong to the upper class, and in the British class system are considered part of the gentry. In the French-speaking countries, they are sometimes referred la petite haute bourgeoisie. The haute bourgeoisie is a social rank in the bourgeoisie that can only be acquired through time. In France, it is composed of bourgeois families that have existed since the French Revolution.
They have rich cultural and historical heritages, and their financial means are more than secure. These families exude an aura of nobility, which prevents them from certain marriages or occupations. These people nevertheless live lavishly, enjoying the company of the great artists of the time. In France, the families of the haute bourgeoisie are also referred to as les familles , a term coined in the first half of the 20th century. In the French language, the term bourgeoisie almost designates a caste by itself, even though social mobility into this socio-economic group is possible. They usually acquired high and important administrative and judicial functions, and distinguished themselves through their success, particularly in business and industry.
It was through this distinction that some of these families were ennobled and became part of the aristocracy. Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class struggle , but supported the "class struggle between nations", and sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it identified Germany as a proletariat nation fighting against plutocratic nations. The Nazi Party had many working-class supporters and members, and a strong appeal to the middle class. The financial collapse of the white collar middle-class of the s figures much in their strong support of Nazism. Hitler was impressed by the populist antisemitism and the anti-liberal bourgeois agitation of Karl Lueger , who as the mayor of Vienna during Hitler's time in the city, used a rabble-rousing style of oratory that appealed to the wider masses.
Hitler distrusted capitalism for being unreliable due to its egotism , and he preferred a state-directed economy that is subordinated to the interests of the Volk. Hitler told a party leader in , "The economic system of our day is the creation of the Jews". In , Prime Minister Mussolini gave a speech wherein he established a clear ideological distinction between capitalism the social function of the bourgeoisie and the bourgeoisie as a social class , whom he dehumanised by reducing them into high-level abstractions: a moral category and a state of mind. Philosophically, as a materialist creature, the bourgeois man was stereotyped as irreligious; thus, to establish an existential distinction between the supernatural faith of the Roman Catholic Church and the materialist faith of temporal religion; in The Autarchy of Culture: Intellectuals and Fascism in the s , the priest Giuseppe Marino said that:.
Christianity is essentially anti-bourgeois. A Christian, a true Christian, and thus a Catholic , is the opposite of a bourgeois. Culturally, the bourgeois man may be considered effeminate, infantile, or acting in a pretentious manner; describing his philistinism in Bonifica antiborghese , Roberto Paravese comments on the:. Middle class, middle man, incapable of great virtue or great vice: and there would be nothing wrong with that, if only he would be willing to remain as such; but, when his child-like or feminine tendency to camouflage pushes him to dream of grandeur, honours, and thus riches, which he cannot achieve honestly with his own "second-rate" powers, then the average man compensates with cunning, schemes, and mischief; he kicks out ethics, and becomes a bourgeois.
The bourgeois is the average man who does not accept to remain such, and who, lacking the strength sufficient for the conquest of essential values—those of the spirit—opts for material ones, for appearances. Any assumption of legitimate political power government and rule by the bourgeoisie represented a fascist loss of totalitarian state power for social control through political unity—one people, one nation, and one leader. Sociologically, to the fascist man, to become a bourgeois was a character flaw inherent to the masculine mystique; therefore, the ideology of Italian fascism scornfully defined the bourgeois man as "spiritually castrated".
Karl Marx said that the culture of a society is dominated by the mores of the ruling-class , wherein their superimposed value system is abided by each social class the upper, the middle, the lower regardless of the socio-economic results it yields to them. The critical analyses of the bourgeois mentality by the German intellectual Walter Benjamin — indicated that the shop culture of the petite bourgeoisie established the sitting room as the centre of personal and family life; as such, the English bourgeois culture is, he alleges, a sitting-room culture of prestige through conspicuous consumption.
The material culture of the bourgeoisie concentrated on mass-produced luxury goods of high quality; between generations, the only variance was the materials with which the goods were manufactured. In the early part of the 19th century, the bourgeois house contained a home that first was stocked and decorated with hand-painted porcelain , machine-printed cotton fabrics, machine-printed wallpaper , and Sheffield steel crucible and stainless. The utility of these things was inherent in their practical functions. By the latter part of the 19th century, the bourgeois house contained a home that had been remodelled by conspicuous consumption. Here, Benjamin argues, the goods were bought to display wealth discretionary income , rather than for their practical utility.
The bourgeoisie had transposed the wares of the shop window to the sitting room, where the clutter of display signalled bourgeois success. Two spatial constructs manifest the bourgeois mentality: i the shop-window display, and ii the sitting room. In English, the term "sitting-room culture" is synonymous for "bourgeois mentality", a " philistine " cultural perspective from the Victorian Era — , especially characterised by the repression of emotion and of sexual desire; and by the construction of a regulated social-space where " propriety " is the key personality trait desired in men and women. Nonetheless, from such a psychologically constricted worldview , regarding the rearing of children, contemporary sociologists claim to have identified "progressive" middle-class values, such as respect for non-conformity, self-direction, autonomy , gender equality and the encouragement of innovation; as in the Victorian Era, the transposition to the US of the bourgeois system of social values has been identified as a requisite for employment success in the professions.
Bourgeois values are dependent on rationalism , which began with the economic sphere and moves into every sphere of life which is formulated by Max Weber. Much like the Marxist critics of that period, Weber was concerned with the growing ability of large corporations and nations to increase their power and reach throughout the world. Beyond the intellectual realms of political economy , history, and political science that discuss, describe, and analyse the bourgeoisie as a social class, the colloquial usage of the sociological terms bourgeois and bourgeoise describe the social stereotypes of the old money and of the nouveau riche , who is a politically timid conformist satisfied with a wealthy, consumerist style of life characterised by conspicuous consumption and the continual striving for prestige.
See: Authenticity. The term bourgeoisie has been used as a pejorative and a term of abuse since the 19th century, particularly by intellectuals and artists. Buddenbrooks , by Thomas Mann — , chronicles the moral , intellectual, and physical decay of a rich family through its declines, material and spiritual, in the course of four generations, beginning with the patriarch Johann Buddenbrook Sr. Yet, in the children of Buddenbrook Jr. Babbitt , by Sinclair Lewis — , satirizes the American bourgeois George Follansbee Babbitt, a middle-aged realtor , booster , and joiner in the Midwestern city of Zenith, who — despite being unimaginative, self-important, and hopelessly conformist and middle-class — is aware that there must be more to life than money and the consumption of the best things that money can buy.
Nevertheless, he fears being excluded from the mainstream of society more than he does living for himself, by being true to himself — his heart-felt flirtations with independence dabbling in liberal politics and a love affair with a pretty widow come to naught because he is existentially afraid. Yet, George F. Babbitt sublimates his desire for self-respect, and encourages his son to rebel against the conformity that results from bourgeois prosperity, by recommending that he be true to himself:. Don't be scared of the family. Partir disso desencadeia em uma grande Crise. Em fevereiro de publicou General Theory e promoveu o que se chama hoje de Teoria Keynesiana.
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