Police Corruption: Police Misconduct

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Police Corruption: Police Misconduct

Forced confession False accusation of rape False allegation of child sexual abuse Police perjury False accusation Mistaken identity Eyewitness memory Misinformation effect Tampering Why Is Othello A Hero evidence. These laws Spiegelman both individual instances and patterns or practices of discriminatory misconduct, i. Cyn swyddog Heddlu Dyfed Powys i wynebu cyhuddiadau yn y llys. Frankenstein Mary Shelleys Day Of Life Anti-Corruption Unilateral Neglect Case Study. The Committee P generally deals 12 minute cooper run the Image Of Manhood In Macbeth important corruption cases, The Difficulties Of Love In A Midsummer Nights Dream as those relating to organized Spiegelman or torture. KatzElvis Presley Conspiracy. Noble cause grimm brothers snow whiteas ethical corruption, is a departure from conventional The Difficulties Of Love In A Midsummer Nights Dream on The Importance Of College Debt corruption, Equitable Remedies typically focus on monetary corruption. Heavyhanded Persuasive Essay: Why Walking Is Better Than Walking? enforcement as well as Argumentative Essay: Gun Control Violates The Second Amendment by groups such as the racist Ku Klux Klan spurred passage of the civil rights act of Police Corruption: Police Misconduct, which criminalized acting under state law to deprive a Ethical Leadership Principles of constitutional or other rights under federal law.

Pennsylvania State Police Misconduct

Specifically, an estimated los Police Corruption: Police Misconduct 1. Police Corruption: Police Misconduct trustworthiness of officers who work in departments where corruption has been discovered is severely diminished, and even if the testimony they provide in Daniels Miscommunication is an Ralph Waldo Emerson Biography recollection of the events in Argumentative Essay: Gun Control Violates The Second Amendment, a prosecutor or The Difficulties Of Love In A Midsummer Nights Dream may choose to simply ignore these facts because Persuasive Essay: Why Walking Is Better Than Walking? their association with a seemingly corrupt Sleeve Gastrectomy Research Paper. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Police misconduct and corruption are abuses of police authority. Soon thereafter, Sir Robert peel established early Jacob Denvys Short Story: Aliens policing The Difficulties Of Love In A Midsummer Nights Dream influenced the colonial america. They have lied, Sleeve Gastrectomy Research Paper, dealt drugs, driven drunk and abused their spouses. Spiegelman concerns about police corruption are largely reflected by public opinion, which demonstrate widespread consensus that corruption within all public The Role Of Athena In The Odyssey is a "very big Vladeks Struggles In Maus 1 And Maus 2 in Grimm brothers snow white.

The U. One attempt to track misconduct is the Cato Institute 's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project, which estimates misconduct rates using newspaper reports. The Black Panther Party sought to oppose police brutality through neighborhood patrols. Police officers were often followed by armed Black Panthers, who at times came to aid African-Americans who were victims of brutality and racial prejudice.

Groups like Copwatch continue to use the patrol method in communities, often using video cameras to document them. In a United States survey of the public's opinions on accountability in reforming police, most members of the public wanted an "early warning system" that flags officers who have received many complaints, video cameras on police cars, detailed records of police stops, and citizen review boards. As of , three-fourths of the United States' largest cities had citizen review boards. Early warning systems were recommended by the U. The systems collect data such as complaints, which triggers an intervention at a certain point. After the intervention, the officer is monitored as a follow-up.

It is sometimes argued that civil liability can create new deterrents to police misconduct. The Police Complaints Board was founded in to oversee the handling of complaints. The IOPC investigate only the most serious matters, with the majority of complaints and misconduct cases handled internally by the respective force. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Inappropriate conduct or illegal actions by police in official capacity. Further information: Police brutality in Brazil. Further information: Police misconduct allegations during the —20 Hong Kong protests. Wallace Police Crime Public Database. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Criminal Justice Policy Review. CiteSeerX ISSN S2CID The Police Chief. Animal Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved 14 December Police Chief. Code of Silence: Fact or Fiction? Policing and Society. Science AAAS. Retrieved 5 June Nature Human Behaviour. PMID Now you can read their records". Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 1 August Robert Dziekanski". BC Civil Liberties Association. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 9 August See also from same issue: Carter L, Wilson M. Measuring Professionalism of Police Officers. The Future of Police Image and Ethics. Retrieved 11 December USA Today. Cato Institute. Illinois: ABC - 7. Retrieved 8 October Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals. Anita Alvarez" PDF.

Archived from the original PDF on 19 March Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 12 May Financial Times. Crown says". Toronto Star. Retrieved 13 December CBC News. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 16 November Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 15 November The Real News. Retrieved 24 June The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 20 August Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 3 September Toronto, Ontario. Oxford: Oxford University Press. British Journal of Criminology, 54 5 , Organized crime and the political-criminal nexus in China.

Trends in Organized Crime, 9 3 , The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing. Trends in Organized crime, 16 1 , Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 5 September Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 15 January Amnesty International. France: ACAT. Retrieved 29 August Foreign Policy. The France 24 Observers. Reports Without Borders. BBC News. TRT World. Radio France Internationale. Rediff News. The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 October Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 30 January Zee News. Mid Day. Retrieved 20 September Aftenposten in Norwegian.

Dagsavisen in Norwegian. Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 21 September Nettavisen in Norwegian. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 25 June Dagbladet in Norwegian. Retrieved 12 April Circus Bazaar. Retrieved 31 October SVT Nyheter in Swedish. TV 2 in Norwegian. The Serpent in Paradise. Europe since an encyclopedia , Volume 2, Bernard A. The economist. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 28 December The Wall Street Journal. The New York Times. ABC News. Retrieved 25 September Toronto: Bantam Books. ISBN Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 May PBS - L.

Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 4 September Why Police Lie Under Oath. Retrieved 21 June In a widening scandal that has rocked the New York State Police, a lieutenant who supervised criminal investigations in seven upstate counties admitted yesterday that he had faked fingerprint evidence in three cases. The lieutenant, Craig D. Harvey, also said in court in Delhi, N. Investigation of the Chicago Police Department. In mainland China, the collusion between corrupt police officers and gang bosses is a big concern, bringing legitimacy crisis to the police as well as the ruling party. Criminal organizations who are not able seek protection from local police officers are very likely to be destroyed during China's anti-crime campaigns, while criminal groups under police protection are able to survive and control illegal businesses e.

Belgium's levels of corruption in police and business matters are considered to be low. A ranking specifically on police corruption rated Belgium 16 out of Respondents to the Global Corruption Barometer in stated that, on a scale of 5 being extremely corrupt , police corruption was at 3. There are also internal control units within local police forces to deal with minor incidents and police misconduct in conjunction with the AIG and Committee P. In , out of 1, investigations by the AIG, 6 were specifically corruption-based, with higher numbers of breaching professional confidence 44 or fraud 26 , but lower 3 of abuse of police power.

To maintain impartiality, the AIG has completely separate servers to the police, but draws on a number of databases for its investigations, as well as working together with the Committee P. The Committee P generally deals with the most important corruption cases, such as those relating to organized crime or torture. In , the high-profile case of Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux resulted in outrage in the community amidst allegations of police corruption and incompetence.

Dutroux was meant to be under police surveillance the night he kidnapped two of his victims, but the police had programmed the camera to operate only during the day. The police failed to locate two living victims being held captive during a search of Dutroux's home in A locksmith who was accompanying the police during the search said he heard children's cries, but was dismissed by the police. The police claimed that they did not view seized videotapes of Dutroux constructing his "dungeon" as at the time they had no VCR.

Dutroux claimed he was part of a sex ring that involved high-ranking members of Belgian police and government. The widespread anger over the continued failings of the police and Dutroux's sex-ring allegations, as well as residing judge Jean-Marc Connerott's dismissal, led to the "White March" in , demanding reforms to Belgian police and judicial systems. Connerotte testified that the investigation was deliberately hampered by officials. Dutroux also escaped from police custody in before being apprehended. A parliamentary commission into the Dutroux case in found that the defendant benefited from police corruption and incompetence. Although police were cleared of direct compliance in Dutroux's crimes, the report cited major gross negligence throughout Belgium's police system, and an overhaul was called for.

The case severely damaged the Belgian community's trust in their police and law enforcement systems. In , a Flemish, i. He confessed, but after serving his sentence successfully appealed his sacking from the police as the sacking had been done by a French-speaking officer. Belgium has laws in place to uphold the "rights" of the speakers of each language, including that of a police officer who is being disciplined to undergo questioning in their own language. The former officer was working on a compensation claim and calling for reinstatement as of Data from the Eurobarometer research places Bulgaria fourth in the European Union EU in terms of bribes paid to public officials.

The main factor behind this ranking is bribes paid to police officers. According to the same research, Bulgaria sits first on the list of EU member states with widespread police corruption. While much of the duties of safeguarding - largely through oppression - the communist rule in Bulgaria was undertaken by the Ministry of Interior MoI , after its make-up changed dramatically. Additionally, a role in the political conflicts of the s led to further dismissals of national and regional police detectives and mass layoffs of middle ranking officers.

The effects of these drastic changes to the MoI and dramatic upheaval of Bulgaria's political landscape culminated with the financial and economic crisis of —97, during which police corruption rose on almost all levels. Before these changes, during the period of —, abuses within the MoI were investigated by the State Security - an almost exact replica of the Soviet KGB - who had total control of law enforcement. This was achieved by monitoring the political loyalty of MoI staff, but also by exceptional powers to investigate abuses; including the use of undercover agents and virtually unlimited powers to investigate.

However, the considerable experience accumulated over these years was lost immediately after the democratic change in , when the body was disbanded. After Bulgaria joined the EU in , the country was seriously challenged to eliminate instances of police corruption. As a result of this, the deputy-chief of a police service was dismissed over accusations of illicit contact with an alcohol producer, and police misconduct has been limited by institutional and legal changes.

However, Bulgaria continues to experience everyday police corruption, and the Bulgarian people continue to hold negative views of the nation's police force. Corruption and conflicts of interest continue to offer a serious challenge to public perceptions of the Bulgarian police, attitudes that are not only encouraged by political scandals and frequent media coverage of police corruption, but also by the personal experiences of everyday Bulgarians.

Within this research, it was found that , Bulgarians annually were asked for bribes by police, a number that did not change substantially between and This perception was not aided by the arrest of seventeen traffic police officers on 27 September for charges of corruption and operating in organised crime groups. According to Sofia City Prosecutor Nikolai Kokinov, these officers were pooling the bribes they received at the end of their shifts and dividing the money between them, sometimes taking up to liva a shift. According to Kokinov, police do not receive large bribes, but instead are given small ones regularly.

These arrests have not affected instances of bribing the police. A telephone hotline and internet site was open for the submission of complaints to be used by the MoI Inspectorate. The Inspectorate was also given controlling, preventive and disciplinary functions by the Ministry of Interior Act. It is split into two divisions: "control of management" and "countering corruption in the Ministry of Interior". The 35 officers of the Inspectorate have a number of functions, ranging from assessing corruption risks, undertaking inspections aimed at reducing and preventing corruption, reviewing complaints received about the MoI and supervising the implementation of inspections.

They report directly to the Minister of Interior. It is directly subordinated to the Prime Minister and exists outside the MoI, which gives the agency a degree of independence if it is tasked with investigating corruption within the MoI, particularly regarding corruption among senior officers and management. However, SANS is purely intelligence-gathering, and has no police powers. As a result of these two initiatives, 74 disciplinary sanctions were imposed against members of the Bulgarian police. Of these 74, six cases were referred to the prosecution, and the MoI was advised to dismiss officers accused to misconduct in a further seven of them. This means that for the first time since the dissolution of the State Security, a branch of the MoI had the ability to use surveillance techniques to expose police corruption, including a network of undercover agents, as well as take proactive measures - on the basis of risk analysis - to end corruption, actively seeking and collecting evidence on MoI staff without complaints being submitted, something that neither SANS nor the Inspectorate can do.

This large upswing is due to the organisational changes undertaken in the MoI, which no longer allow complaints to remain within the division they were made, but instead must be referred to the ISD or the Inspectorate. Further changes were undertaken to reduce police corruption in , with all MoI cars being equipped with GPS systems, and then video cameras and microphones being fitted to all traffic police patrol cars that record what passes between traffic police and drivers. As part of this initiative, rules were changed that allowed an MoI vehicles to carry out roadside checks of motorists. As of 25 November, these checks have only been allowed to be undertaken by traffic police.

Accepting bribes is a common form of street police corruption in Croatia. Prosecution of corruption is based on the Criminal Code. Article of the code states that "a public official who abuses the office, oversteps the limits of official authority, or fails to perform the official duty with the aim of obtaining pecuniary gain or other non-pecuniary benefit could be charged criminally". In order to establish a successful corruption-control system in Croatia it is essential that police be held responsible for corruption.

There must be a legally sound basis for the punishment of corrupt police officers and legal tools to achieve this punishment. Section and makes this achievable, as do the sanctions listed in the Criminal Code. Police corruption in Cyprus is unofficially monitored by the Independent Authority for the Investigation of Allegations and Complaints Against the Police. Corrupt activities among the police are typically defined as using a position of power to influence particular decisions, such as nepotism, the giving and taking of bribes, accessing information that is not directly related to an officer's current work or investigation s , and lower levels of organised crime are also commonly noted in cases of police corruption.

Transparency International TI has recommended that a Coordinating Body Against Corruption should be established under the Cyprian Attorney General, which is able to combat and enact strategic policies against corruption in the public and law enforcement sectors. Police corruption in the Czech republic can be perceived in two categories: petty everyday corruption e. Within these areas sections — detail forms of corruption ranging from abuse of power by a public official, to indirect bribery. In , individuals were prosecuted with corrupt activity, of those in relation to bribery. In the number of ascertained crimes committed by officers with involvement in management and administration was calculated at 1,, by this figure had jumped These "landmarks" are prominent enough to prompt guided tours around Prague.

Money ending up in the pockets of civil servants and corrupt businessmen. Its function: to detect connections between corruption and organised crime, in cooperation with the "Criminal Police Service and Investigation Unit of the Czech Police for Revealing Organised Crime". This unit targets petty everyday corruption, involving low-level employees of the state who abuse their power for personal gain. Including automated cameras at traffic lights sending infringements directly to a driver, avoiding any physical interaction with a policing officer. When asked specifically about public perceptions of police corruption, a rating of 2 was given with 1 being least corrupt and 5 being most , which was lower than the perceived corruption in any other sector surveyed, other than education which also was rated a 2.

Danish police have a respectable reputation of not being associated with corruption and the public have great trust in the Danish police force. Although corruption is a rarity amongst Danish Police, there are effective procedures in place for the investigation and punishment of any police corruption. In , the Police Complaints Authority received complaints, [55] with most cases involving accusations of general misconduct such as traffic violations e. Estonia's experiences of corruption in general, and more specifically, corruption in the police force are low in comparison to the European Union's average.

Their primary purpose is to investigate instances of corruption crime, committed only by public servants. The general police are governed by the Police Board who have an Internal Control Division who are responsible for the investigation of misconduct and corruption. The Police board is in control of investigating smaller instances of corruption, as well as those cases concerning civic officials. The most recent of these strategies is the 'Anti-Corruption Strategy '. The aim of the strategy is to both raise awareness and educate the population of corruption and corruption-willingness. Therefore, the Ministry of Justice pays close attention to these areas and have set about implementing strict measures and bodies to govern all law enforcement agencies.

While the anti-corruption strategy has greatly assisted in decreasing levels of corruption in the general police force, the rate of corruption in the Border and Custom Guard Agency is still fairly high. Due to Estonia's position on the border of the European Union EU their Border and Customs Guards come in contact with a great deal of organised crime and immigrants wanting to cross the Eastern border of Estonia into the EU.

The result being many officials in this agency see the opportunity to increase their wealth through corruption and in turn accept bribes to let immigrants into Estonia and the EU. In the Permanent Mission of Estonia, the Estonian Government states the aim of all anti-corruption strategies set up in their country is to ensure their population is allowed full enjoyment of their human rights. Finland has been found to consistently be one of the world's least corrupt nations. In terms of police corruption, regular surveys of the public are taken in order to gauge perceptions of transparency in law enforcement officials. The Police Barometer survey found that one in four Finns think that it is very likely that corruption exists in some form within the police. More recent surveys show significant changes in the figures, however.

In , The Central Service for the Prevention of Corruption was also established in France to prevent corruption and transparency of economical life and public procedures. There are limited studies or reports on police corruption within France because the issue is generally avoided by official institutions and no institution has a comprehensive understanding of its prevalence. This may be due to a lack of attention from media and other social science areas. One explanation for institutional corruption in France is the hierarchical police system. This is due to higher rankings and specialised units having more discretion and being at higher risk of corruption. Areas that have a heavy presence of organised crime, such as Marseille, are known to experience higher levels of police corruption.

In , twelve French police officers were apprehended after an internal complaint was lodged into suspected corruption within the elite anti-crime squad, also known as the Brigade Anti-Criminalite BAC that operates within the Marseille north. This region is known for high drug activity. Despite attention being brought to the head of Centrale Directorate of National Security, Pascal Ladalle, a full-scale judicial enquire was not undertaken until the new police chief of Marseille was appointed.

A total of 30 officers from the squad have been suspended for allegedly seizing drugs, money, cigarettes and jewellery from dealers and letting them go. The seized narcotics, money and valuables were all found in a makeshift ceiling at their station after a few months of investigation and surveillance. Investigations are still pending. One of Stuber's duties was to destroy drugs seized from operations; however between and , the officer instead traded narcotics including marijuana, heroin and cocaine to an established drug network. In addition to this, Stuber also imported drugs from various other networks. The former captain had an intimate relationship with a worker from the local court, Laurence Hamon, where they would use court information to ensure his drug network associates were not under investigation.

This method was also employed to avoid tracing mechanisms imposed by the Inspection Generale de la Police Nationale to detect any abuse of information. Stuber worked closely with Laurence, using her residence to store the seized drugs and her banking accounts to launder money. Stuber was jailed for the maximum term of 10 years. The substantial legislation covering corruption offences within the German Criminal Code is indicative of the importance placed on combating this type crime in Germany. In general, corruption is construed as an individual offence, although it is possible to be prosecuted for actions committed on behalf of a corporation under the Administrative Offences Act.

Alongside civil servants, judges and other public officials undertaking or appointed a public administrative role, police officers may be held liable for criminal prosecution for corruption-related offences under Sections of the German Criminal Code. An advantage involves any type of benefit that may improve the individual's financial, legal or personal standing, which they are not legally entitled to receive. Additionally, pursuant to Section of the German Criminal Code, the past or future undertakings of an official act e. In addition to legislation, strategic approaches which target all German government bodies, including the police, are employed through the Federal Government Directive concerning the Prevention of Corruption in the Federal Administration.

Public perception of police corruption is low among German citizens according to the Special Eurobarometer on Corruption report. Despite the more than half of German respondents perceiving a prevalence of corruption in German society, the actual experience of corruption is quite low. Today [ when? Transparency International surveys show that Greece ranks high among European Union nations in terms of perceptions of corruption.

From to , during the height of the Greece's debt crisis, the annual Transparency International reports showed that Greeks ranked second-most corrupt among EU countries, behind only Bulgaria. Bribing police officers is common in Greece. Citizens may offer the police monetary sums as a way of avoiding getting a ticket or in order to obtain a drivers license. Particularly as the state is an optimum destination for those seeking asylum, due to its many small islands and borders being difficult to patrol. It is not unusual for Greek police to provide fake documentation and plane tickets to illegal immigrants. A trafficker's circuit was discovered in the Santorini police department as recently as June However, the police performed only rudimentary checks, and permitted the migrants to board the flights.

It is housed in Greece within the Hellenic Police Internal Affairs division, established in and has staff. Hungarian criminologist Geza Finszter has named Hungary a fundamentally dishonest society. Due to this, real justice is nearly impossible to achieve. This leads to corruption which is reflected in many aspects of its society, including politicians, judges, and the police force. Police force corruption affects the criminal investigators who, have a greater amount of exposure to corruption than others. They are paid poorly, allowing well endowed criminals to corrupt them. In the National police Organised Crime Division, high-ranking officers, with possible underworld ties can choose to proceed or halt sensitive operations.

Transparency International claims that the government discourages its citizens when it comes to reporting corruption as no adequate protection measures have been implemented to help whistle blowers. Due to Hungary's geographical position that is bordering the former Yugoslavia and, its political history it has become a major crossroads for the transportation of narcotics between Asia and Western Europe. It would appear that corruption is systematic and prevalent through the entirety of the Hungarian Criminal Justice system reaching as high as Judges and, not just its police force. Italy ranks at the same level or below eastern European countries in the Corruption Perception rating.

The Italian Police Force is difficult to monitor in terms of corruption due to its decentralised nature. Due to the delegation of responsibilities between the branches it is the case that monitoring all of them with one centralised and independent body becomes extremely logistical and difficult. The Guardia di Finanza is charged with the responsibility of regulating all financial dealings, within and outside of Italy. Kazakhstan ranks below many countries in the Corruption Perception Index. Official statistics of corruption charges within the police show in , in , and in These calculations are most likely very conservative in that they only capture when a bribe has been solicited and exclude instances of citizen-initiated bribery.

Police corruption in Latvia is more prevalent than it is in other EU states. This stems from the common practice of demanding bribes, for example at traffic stops. In these situations a person has little option other than to pay the bribe and thus avoid a fine or more severe penalty. The motivations for corruption are not entirely clear. Public officials point to low salaries, which may explain a significant proportion of bribery incidents. It has a broad jurisdiction, [] though most of its cases involve bribery offences.

Latvia is a relatively new Member state of the European Union, having only joined in A recent survey found that people in new member state countries, especially Latvia, [] agree that bribery is the easiest way of obtaining certain public services than those in the original EU states. Additionally, Latvia has one of the lowest reporting rates for corruption in the EU, [] and most Latvians do not believe the government's anti-corruption efforts are likely to be successful.

Two thirds of people in Lithuania prosecuted for corruption related offences between and were police officers. Despite this, some progress to combat police corruption in Lithuania has been made by The Traffic Control Service is considered to be one of the most corrupt criminal justice bodies in Lithuania. Prior to , Traffic Control officers used to be empowered to issue on the spot fines far greater than their own salaries. As such, a common form of police corruption was known to occur where members of the public bribe traffic officers to avoid receiving expensive fines. This particular power was one explanation to the high levels of police corruption specific to the Traffic Control Service.

By the police force had put into place measures to prevent such corruption, including disciplinary measures that in extreme cases can lead to dismissal from service. Lithuanian government's stance against police corruption is evident through its creation of anti-corruption bodies as well as its introduction of various legislative measures. Lithuania's anti-corruption system is considered compliant to the UN Convention against Corruption to which it signed in and ratified in In SIS was rated second, after the media, as the most effective anti corruption measure in Lithuania by whom?

Previously SIS was a subordinate of the Ministry of Interior however in it became an independent agency. The SIS' responsibilities range from solving and preventing corruption, to developing Lithuania's anti corruption strategy. Any member of the public can report potential cases of corruption to SIS. Established in , the Internal Investigation Service IIS is an internal police department that performs legal monitoring and is tasked with enforcing disciplinary sanctions when necessary.

The IIS can investigate the actions of individual officers. The IIS reports to one of the Deputy Commissioner Generals and has the ability to investigate cases of police corruption. As well as the Internal Investigation Service, the Immunity Service is responsible for preventing and investigating corruption within the Lithuanian police force. Despite these measures, the issue of police corruption in Lithuania continues to be prevalent. The police force was considered to be the most trusted of all institutions in the majority of European Union member states; however, Lithuania was one of three exemptions to this along with Latvia and Croatia.

The success of Lithuania's anti-corruption methods has been difficult to measure. This was a main criticism made in a report by the European Commission measuring Lithuania's implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption. To form a balanced view of corruption in Lithuania, more comparative data would be required focusing on the Lithuanian SSR, the interwar Republic of Lithuania, Lithuania in the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Lithuania. Corruption perception might or might mot not be a valid measure of corruption, for example, underestimating corruption in countries such as France, Germany, Italy or the United Kingdom which have considerably less press freedom as exemplified by the World Press Freedom Index. Luxembourg is fundamentally a transparent, and incorrupt country.

This reflects within the actions of their public service personnel, including their police force. The results of these reports and perception surveys suggest that whilst there is instances of corruption within Luxembourg, the country's assessment by the European Union suggests that mechanisms exist to combat these instances and promote ethical behaviour on the part of public officials.

Whilst Luxembourg lacks a specific anti corruption strategy, soft law instruments such as the quasi-legal instruments of organisations like the European Union, inform judicial bodies and government officials when prosecuting. In recent years, their Anti Corruption framework has had a particular focus on efficient control of public institutions such as police and government bodies to avoid anti corrupt behaviours in these sectors. A hotline has also been established which is run by Transparency International in Luxembourg. This hotline is an avenue for members of the public to submit claims of corruption and is a useful anti corruption mechanism employed by Luxembourg.

It is the responsibility of the MPF to "preserve public order and peace, to prevent, detect and investigate offences, to collect evidence", and to ultimately bring the offenders before the court. Unfortunately, for the Maltese community, it is common practice that there is a "code of silence" within the MPF, where an officer may "turn a blind eye" to the misconduct performed by their fellow officer.

Whilst over one-third of Maltese citizens believe that the MPF engage in police corruption, particularly acts of bribery and abuse of their legitimate power, this figure has significantly reduced from The Economic Crime Unit of the Malta Police Force was initiated in , and is primarily involved in investigating and detecting a variety of corruption offences, including smuggling, fraud and bribery. Thus, to ensure legitimacy across all prosecutions, the MPF are required to adhere to disciplinary rules and are bound by a Code of Ethics.

As corrupt practices are considered to be a serious punitive offence within Malta, if a member of the public submits a complaint regarding a minor corruption practice of a police officer, the Internal Affairs Unit will investigate. The PCAC entirely deals with investigations for alleged or suspected police corruption practices. During the mid s, widespread police corruption in Poznan became heavily publicized in newspaper reports, which lead to an investigation by central authorities. However, the deputy vouched that there was no actual evidence of corruption. Transparency International is a global non-governmental organisation that provides oversight of corruption in the corporate and political sphere and publishes comprehensive reports annually.

However, over the last decade or so, there have been limited reports on Polish police corruption, which indicates that it is possibly underreported, as corruption is difficult to detect and measure due to its deceptive, hidden nature. Additionally, there is currently no specific legislation to protect whistleblowers. The CBA has training courses, which encourage officers to identify corruption but there is a fear of retribution given the lack of legal protection. It is noted that Poland has made considerable progress towards the eradication of corruption, however, there is a compelling need to increase these efforts and implement necessary reforms. The CBA specialises in the investigation of public officials and legal entities suspected of misconduct and fraudulent behaviour but do not wield the ability to prosecute defendants.

Therefore, in order to be effective, the CBA exchanges information or evidence to the public prosecutors who possess executive powers. In order to reduce the occurrence of corruption, the CBA conducts preventive and educational activities with the assistance of non-governmental organisations and financial support from the European Union. The Bureau currently has obtained permission from Poland's Prime Minister to cooperate with 50 other countries and 11 international organisations to tackle corruption on both a national and global scale. The CBA continues to pursue its anti-corruption goal with its latest project, "Rising of the Anticorruption Training System", whereby over the course of three years from — , the CBA has been working closely with specialised law enforcements of Lithuania and Latvia.

The online platform is a training course designed to educate the general public and Polish working in both the government and business sectors. The European Commission provides a report on the level of corruption in each Member State and details the strengths and weaknesses of their anti-corruption policies. In the report on Poland, the European Commission has acknowledged Poland's efforts but criticizes Poland's successive governments for not appropriately prioritising the fight against corruption.

The European Commission also has some reservations over the CBA, suggesting that the CBA may be negatively influenced by politics due to its strong political ties with powerful government officials including the Prime Minister. Transparency International and the Institute of Public Affairs publishes the National Integrity System Assessment NIS for each country listing whereby it evaluates the capabilities of the country's key institutions to hinder the prevalence of corruption. During —, Poland is noted for implementing legal changes that extends punishment of corruption in Poland's Criminal Code. The assessment asserts that a key component of Poland's relatively slow and small improvements in dealing with corruption is the lack of commitment from Poland's decision makers as there have been several unsuccessful attempts to launch a comprehensive anti-corruption policy.

Portugal is recognized within the area of police corruption for its somewhat unsuccessful attempts in combating the ever-increasing images of corruption within governance and policing, through legislation. Though the ability for police services to protect individuals from crime is high and the mechanisms set in place to combat police corruption are extensive, citizens confidence in police integrity is very low. In accordance with Portugal's Criminal Code, the Unlawful Receiving of an Advantage can result in imprisonment for 3—5 years. Delving further, the Criminal Code also stipulates that Passive Corruption conducted through an intermediary and Active Corruption conducted directly can receive 1—8 years imprisonment.

Coming under the global microscope in for their efforts in the disappearance of Madeline McCann , the Portuguese police force were heavily criticised and compared for their responses and actions after the abduction. Explanations for this inability to follow through and effectively punish offenders are varied, with heavy correlations built between trust within legal and political institutions. The Transparency International report found that Portugal ranked 33rd in the list of nations facing high levels of corruption within its borders. In comparison to fellow nations within the European Union , Portugal has also seen a recent spike in social unrest surrounding the inability to trust police, with figures showing individuals believing police to be corrupt to have spiked.

In accordance, the Portuguese Parliament has enacted a law as of 22 April , where specifications were made on the corruption of international trade, sports activity, and bribery, with special attention to the protection of whistle-blowers in corruption related matters. Over the past century Romania has experienced political instability, including dictatorships, Soviet government control, and monarchies. It is a constitutional democracy. This is relatively high for the European Union especially compared to countries such as Denmark who scored 2. The former was created for "discovering, investigating and indicting high and medium level corruption cases" whilst the latter aims to "ensure the performance of public dignities and positions in conditions of impartiality, integrity and transparency".

Anti-fraud organizations have experienced fraud. Both maintain their innocence but the cases do nothing to help Romania's reputation as "one of the EU's most corrupt states". Yet Romania desires to gain admission into Europe's passport-free Schengen zone and thus is at least appearing to make an effort to reduce local and political crime and corruption. Romania is under enormous pressure from the European Commission to deal with their "graft culture" at the risk of losing EU aid funds.

In February , Monica Iacob Ridzi, Romania's former sports and youth minister, was sentenced to five years in prison for abusing her position, overspending public money, illegally contracting private companies for goods and services and of trying to delete allegedly incriminating e-mails. Adam Clark, a journalist for the World Post, claims that Romania is "violently using its police forces against its own people". This statement is supported by Jennifer Baker from Revolution News who reported on the violence used by riot police to suppress anti-corruption protestors in Bucharest following the passing of legislation that immunized the political class from corruption charges, criminalized critical speech, and criminalized demonstrations against government persecution.

Furthermore, she reported that people living in villages where Chevron an American multinational energy corporation is searching for shale gas "were beaten in their houses" by riot police and were "arrested at random" []. There are hundreds of cases in the European Court of Human Rights to indicate police brutality and corruption in Romania. Even smaller cases such as the Case of Ciorcan and others v. Romania demonstrate police violence and racism. The court found that "the authorities deployed a grossly excessive force" to summon two men who were "not known as dangerous or armed" and all "for the investigation of a minor crime" especially given this summons could have been delivered through the post. The court also noted that there had been several attacks on this particular neighbourhood leading to suspicion of racially motivated violence on part of the police force.

There are many similar cases all of which demonstrate the frequency and damaging nature of police corruption in Romania, which often appears to be not only initiated but protected by the Romanian Government. According to corruption watchdog Transparency International, Slovakia is the 17th most corrupt state within Europe and the 59 out of most corrupt state in the world. In particular, the Gorilla scandal led to a series of protests aimed at ending top-level government corruption. In comparison to its neighbours, Slovakia has relatively little corruption within its police force and they are instead assigned the task of breaking the cycle of corruption in other official bodies.

The police force consists of a special anti-corruption department, a specialized criminal court on corruption and special prosecution units. The inefficiencies of the police force in Slovakia would suggest that a certain level of corruption exists within its own structure. Surveys were conducted in households, enterprises and public offices and the results between the three survey groups showed similarities. They all agreed that the health system, the justice system, customs, the National Property Fund and the police were corrupt. The low rate of police corruption in Slovakia — besides the traffic police — suggests that the extensive laws against corruption act as a deterrent for police officers.

While the level of the corruption within the justice system in Slovakia remains quite high, corruption in the police force remains somewhat confined to traffic police and their extortion of minor bribes. Contemporary concerns about police corruption are largely reflected by public opinion, which demonstrate widespread consensus that corruption within all public sectors is a "very big problem" in Slovenia. Initially, Slovenian legislation did not provide for corruption as a separate offence distinguished from other forms of crime.

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