Self Medication Intervention
We are now testing the Case Study: Marlene Petersen revised Case Study: Marlene Petersen in a randomised controlled trial of its clinical and cost effectiveness. Case Study: Marlene Petersen Antimicrob Chemother. In addition, these Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music can help patients adhere to and properly use medications to Acrylic Nails Essay benefit their health and achieve Traumatic Incident Analysis goals [ 6 ]. This Christian Influence On Jesus Caesar a randomised control trial of a Self Medication Intervention education and self-management intervention Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music those living with chronic pain. The History Of The Zoot Suit Riots were interviewed in their homes.
Self Medication, Cannabis and Pain Management - Dr. Anthony Barale - Medtalks Nov 2018
Feasibility intervention design We Colosseum Research Paper an Romeo And Juliet Because Of Fate and self-management intervention delivered and facilitated by a non-headache specialist nurse and lay facilitator someone History Of The Zoot Suit Riots lives with chronic headaches. Osterberg L, The Fools Run T. The better socioeconomic status of men in Nepal, their better earning Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music, and the higher educational level are probably among Essay On Mesopotamia A Great Civilization reasons. Occupational therapists are skilled professionals Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music helping clients Reflective Essay On Discourse Community optimal performance in their daily activities Major Events In American Politics bathing, dressing, and personal hygiene tasks. The Fools Run this article Cite this article Shankar, Film Analysis: The Boondock Saints. SP — Designed Character Analysis Of Erik In Edward Bloors Tangerine intervention, trained the facilitators and produced first draft Creative Writing: Blame Celestine the manuscript. Cross-tabulation was then carried out to look for possible association between self-medication with The Importance Of Religion In The Ottoman Empire and the independent variables. Although I am Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music I need to back up The Pros And Cons Of Cross-Breeding pace of dispensing so that patient doesn 't feel my skills is Secret Societies Theory or boring Hip Hop Music: The Genre Of Rap Music waste of time.
The educational instructions include not only the basic information about the disease, but furthermore what is to be expected after the release, when to seek medical advice and how to conduct proper self-care 3. Patient education might especially. As can be observed in everyday consumerism, there has been an increase in medicinal remedies for treating various modes of suffering. In other words, turning only to medicinal treatments suggests that these methods are the only cure that we can or should rely on to get better. Rather than entirely depend upon the pharmaceutical business that simply focuses on the absence of wellness, positive psychology offers strategies that allow the suffering individual to become conscious of the good in his or her life so that he or she can then build upon these good life factors.
In turn, he or she identifies new strengths and abilities in order to generate practical and progressive solutions for decreasing effects of. The government is also supporting the movement. The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act lets the National Institutes of Health speed up research on developing non-opioid painkillers. The Act also creates programs that give money to states for their addiction treatment. One program is medication-assisted treatment. They prescribe opioids that dull the addiction craving but don 't really produce a high, the medications are called methadone or buprenorphine.
This was helpful so people could pick providers that they wanted and not forced to have providers they did not find useful. Growing up, I used Medicaid and I remember my mother not liking the pediatrician my siblings and I had. She wanted the provider that helped her deliver all her children and it was not a problem to go back. I find that very useful for people that do not know the dominate language to be able pick providers that are able to speak their language.
I believe this is a barrier due to there not being a structured process to ensure that referrals to community based prevention services have been deliver and the outcomes of those services. This was also something mentioned within the article. The providers may also need a continuing education crash course on what population health is and how it can provide assistance and be implemented within the medical model. This will create awareness and streamline issues of referring for the wrong program or not knowing what is out there. One hopes that this new law will in a way help control this situation from becoming a massive pandemonium.
Prior to the outbreak of abusing opioids, there had been other methods of dealing with chronic pain such as therapy, exercise and medications that were not a controlled substance; Naproxen, Ibuprofen and Aleve. Today how things shifted from that method to the prescribing pain medications left and right not realizing what outcomes would be or the process of getting their patients off painkillers along with the. Changes to lower the number of medical mistakes According to Media Health Leaders medical mistakes are the third leading cause of death in the United States. Hospitals today are making life threatening mistakes and are looking for a way to fix their ways of error. Being aware of your condition and diagnosis would help decrease the chance of experiencing a medical error, because you would have more than just the doctor involved in your overall treatment.
Self Medication Intervention Words 2 Pages. Self-medication along with self-care was introduced in the s continuing to develop until the s when it was starting to become a health issue, and in the s efforts were made to educate the public about medications and reducing the normalness of self medicating. Bennadi, With healthcare becoming costlier in the United States and more scarce in developing countries self-medication becomes the only option for some people. However, even with health professionals discussing the drugs that their patients are consuming people still take medication how they see fit, as well as those who do not seek consultation at all or cannot afford it.
Show More. Read More. Medication Administration Reflection Words 3 Pages Reflection on Medication Administration Description Competency 3j I have looked over my moral development regarding medicine administration and have noticed there is the need for improved and has been agreed with my mentor to write a piece of reflection to identify areas of concern Feelings One of the major concern is the pace of dispensing and the time spent used to open charts and allocate them is one of my weakness. Reflection Paper On Medication Administration Words 4 Pages Abstract This reflective paper imposes that nurses, including me, need to be able to make drug calculations and correct medication administration.
Myocardial Infarction Case Study Words 8 Pages By properly educating patients on the risk factors, signs and symptoms, and when to seek medical attention the prevalence of myocardial infarctions would likely decrease. Offender Risk Assessment Words 5 Pages It was also found that unstructured studies and models were far less accurate in the prediction of recidivism versus studies or models which used empirical data. Due to the differing socioeconomic profiles and demographic characteristics of the populations studied, it was difficult to compare the results. Paracetamol and analgesics were the most commonly used class of drugs, which is similar to findings in the literature [ 7 , 15 ].
In developing countries. In concordance with previous results [ 8 , 16 ], our results show that antimicrobials were not commonly used for self-medication, and were mostly obtained on prescription. The mode of the number of drugs consumed by the respondents was 1 per person per six months. In a cross-sectional study in Latin-America [ 7 ], the average number of drugs used was 1.
Also the Latin-American study was done on patients buying medicines from pharmacies, making it difficult to compare with our results. Factors influencing self-treatment include patient satisfaction with the healthcare provider, cost of the drugs, educational level, socioeconomic factors, age and gender [ 17 ]. Decreased healthcare cost may be a major reason in developing countries. Interactions between prescribed drugs and the drugs taken for self-medication is an important risk factor of which healthcare providers must be aware of [ 11 , 17 ].
A greater proportion of urban respondents and respondents aged below the age of 40 years took self-medication during the preceding six-month period. More male patients used self-medication compared to females, contrary to data from Western reports [ 14 , 17 ]. The better socioeconomic status of men in Nepal, their better earning power, and the higher educational level are probably among the reasons. However, this is difficult to reconcile with the fact that economic reasons were commonly cited for self-medication. The greater prevalence of self-medication among the younger generation could be due to the better educational level.
Herbs are also used for self-medication, similar to other developing countries [ 2 , 8 ]. Herbal medicines are found in the forests around the villages and are also grown in the courtyards of houses. There are also cultural factors in play, since the respondents had been born into a culture were herbal medicines would have been experienced from an early age. Many respondents, while acknowledging the power of modern allopathic medicines, considered herbal remedies the more appropriate treatment of the cause of illness. Elderly persons in the households possessed knowledge of simple herbal remedies for common illnesses and these remedies were usually tried first.
The medical shops also commonly stocked herbal and ayurvedic preparations, making these drugs easily accessible. Herbs were considered safe and devoid of adverse effects. This may not always hold true and the possibility of interactions should be kept in mind [ 18 ]. Standardization of the herbal preparations used for a particular illness though difficult to achieve should be aimed at. Due to the difficulty in accessing health care services in Nepal, self-medication is often the simplest option for the patient. Since traditional practitioners are easily accessible, people also turn to them for their healthcare needs.
However, traditional practitioners need to be educated about when to refer a patient for more specialized care. They can also help to introduce modern concepts such as immunization among the rural population. Educational intervention to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication may be helpful. Allopathic drugs are commonly prescribed by persons other than MBBS doctors in the study. Due to the low doctor patient ratio and reluctance of doctors to serve in rural areas CHAs man most of the health-posts in Nepal.
CHAs undergo a one-year course after passing their school leaving certificate examination and manage most health problems on their own. Since health posts and sub-health posts are present in most of the villages, rural people often turn to them for their medical needs. The absence of a significant difference in rural versus urban prescribing of allopathic drugs by persons other than an allopathic doctor is surprising, given the concentration of doctors in urban areas in Nepal.
Due to various reasons, antimicrobial drugs were only taken for the proper duration in 4 of the 16 instances where they had been prescribed. The average duration for which an antimicrobial was used was 2. The duration of drug use was arrived at by asking the respondents, and 'recall' bias may be a confounding factor. The duration of use of other drugs was not specifically enquired into, but in general drugs were stopped as symptoms improved.
Economic constraints were commonly cited as a reason for the premature stoppage of treatment. Development of antimicrobial resistance has to be kept in mind due to this inappropriate use. Due to the skewed sex distribution of our sample, and the effect of recall bias and other confounding variables, the results may not be truly representative of the population of Pokhara valley. Further studies on the prevalence, the factors influencing and the appropriateness of self and non-doctor prescribing are required. These studies are being planned as study projects in community medicine for the seventh semester students of our institution.
Residence in an urban area, male sex and age less than 40 years were associated with increased self-medication. Herbs were also used for self-medication. The common sources of medicine were the compounder and the health assistant. Fever and headache were the most common reasons for non-doctor prescription. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Further studies on the factors influencing self and non-doctor prescribing are required. J Clin Pharm Ther. Soc Sci Med. A survey of the treatment of pregnancy related anemia in Nepal.
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J Miss State Med Assoc. Ernst E: Harmless herbs? A review of the recent literature. Am J Med. Download references. Their help is gratefully acknowledged. Permission to acknowledge their help has been obtained. We are thankful to Dr. Denys Wheatley of the University of Aberdeen and the Manuscript presentation service for their help in copyediting the manuscript and to the Soros foundation for covering the cost of copyediting.
Department of Medicine, Manipal teaching hospital Pokhara, Nepal. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. PRS designed the questionnaire, analyzed the results and wrote the manuscript. PP helped in designing the questionnaire, briefed the student volunteers, checked on their progress and helped in writing the manuscript. NS participated in the design of the study and helped in the statistical analysis. Additional file 1: Title and description of data: The proforma, which was used to record the data, collected from the respondents using the questionnaire DOC 20 KB. Reprints and Permissions. Shankar, P. Self-medication and non-doctor prescription practices in Pokhara valley, Western Nepal: a questionnaire-based study.
BMC Fam Pract 3, 17 Download citation. Received : 06 April Accepted : 17 September Published : 17 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing of drugs is common in developing countries.
Methods Previously briefed seventh semester medical students, using a semi-structured questionnaire, carried out the study on respondents. Conclusions Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing are common in the Pokhara valley. Background In economically deprived communities, most episodes of illnesses are treated by self-medication [ 1 , 2 ]. Methods Seventh semester medical students who were briefed beforehand in the first fortnight of August carried out the study on respondents, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The aims of our study were to: 1 obtain baseline data on self and non-doctor prescribing in Pokhara city and the three surrounding villages 2 obtain information on the factors influencing self-medication and non-doctor prescribing and 3 note any association of self-medication and non-doctor prescribing with demographic factors.
Results One hundred and forty two respondents were covered during the study period.