Vikingss Influence On English Language
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5 - Norse Influence on English
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Equipped with this knowledge this word is easy to decipher. The Danish word for "thanks" is tak. In Scotland and upper England it was common to drop the at the end because of the way words were pronounced during the time of Old English and Middle English. Hence the slang word "ta" which should actually be pronounced "TA-k" but over time became "ta". After reading that, I also remembered reading, when I was in our chat, that Frisian was the closest surviving spoken language to English, and then remembered the Wikipedia article stating that many Danish speakers are able to understand some spoken Frisian. With those facts, I hypothesized to myself that perhaps the Danes influenced both languages, before they had diverged, some very long time ago.
Alas, that's all I can venture; though I know a fair bit about more modern influences on English — that is, Latin and Old French — I've haven't really seen this discussed before, which is no small wonder, as it seems that whatever influence the Danes had would have been ancient. It's also pretty strange, as compared to French, because Denmark is a bit aways from England; it's doesn't just have a narrow channel to cross, nor, if I remember correctly, doesn't share as intimately connected royal and noble lines as the French have with England.
So I guess my question is: Are the answerer's bolded words above correct? The source you cite seems to confuse two different sources of Danish influence in the English Language: the Jutes and the Danes. The confusion comes from the fact that modern Denmark and Jutland are today the same place. However it is not certain that the Jutes came from modern Jutland. More recent Archaeological evidence locates the Angles farther south-east and the Jutes on the coast, near the Frisian islands off the coast of Germany and the Netherlands".
As a matter of fact, the real identity of the Jutes and their place of origin cannot be reliably established just from ancient texts because they contradict each other. Venerable Bede for instance, often cited as a source lived more than years after the Anglo-Saxon migrations. If you hypothesise that the Jutes migrated to Jutland after the 5th century then the Wikipedia article stating that " many Danish speakers are able to understand some spoken Frisian " makes perfect sense. After all, people migration and splitting was quite common in these times. Consider for instance the migration of Goths, splitting and then travelling to Spain, Italy and Russia or that of the Vandals: to Sicily through Spain, Morocco and Tunisia. Furthermore, as you have rightly pointed out, the distance between the Frisian islands and England is much shorter than the distance between modern Jutland and England.
The most convincing observation is that the Jutes are said to have landed in Kent That is quite possible if they came from Friesland but less likely if they came from Jutland. The Danelaw does lie "in front" of Denmark but Kent surely doesn't. I do not mean to underestimate the contribution of Old Norse to English; it is instead, well established. One often cites for instance many words in "sk": sky, score, skirt, skill, scab, scale, scrap , or such important words as get, die, call, egg, raise, take. Nevertheless one has to be careful when ascribing the etymology of an English word to Danes. It could be from Danish influence or it could be of more ancient Anglo-Saxon origin.
As for ta and thank , the origin of thank is believed to be Proto Germanic thankojan and was already present in Anglo Saxon English before the Danish invasions. So yes "ta" looks like Old Norse indeed but it caught up because it met an already well established cognate. Here is a map c. In fact, the Norman Conquest was only the second conquest of England in the 11th century. The first was begun by Svein Forkbeard, the Danish king, and was completed by his son Cnut in King Cnut also styled "the Great" ruled all of England for nearly 20 years. It is against this backdrop that we must consider the English language to have been profoundly influenced by the Nordic tongue. I'm sure there are many other words, but this shows at what a fundamental level the language was influenced.
It was during that period of history that the language lost some of its more difficult grammatical features - in particular declensions , the complex system of word endings used to distinguish subject from object "who did what to whom". Plus there were additional rules for personal pronouns, and some irregular nouns that didn't follow the usual rules. It is thought that the influence of Old Norse helped to get rid of the Old English system of declensions. Modern English and Middle English instead use a much simpler system of word order and prepositions. Especially so; Northern England was very different historically and literally than the South. Until the Norman conquest everywhere north-east of roughly London-Chester was a Viking country not an Anglo-Saxon one.
This is still obvious in the place names. See for example this link. I am a Dane. I am not a linguistic expert in any way, but I came across this site and question when I tried to research why my year old son is becoming so skilled in the English language without school or myself teaching him in any other way apart than how I myself was taught I was born in But another aspect is that so many words in English are so similar to the corresponding word in Danish, and therefore are easy to learn — in contradiction to those same words in Romance languages.
It is said that the English language is the easiest language to learn, and it is also said that Danish is one of the most difficult languages to learn. So maybe the question is best answered by English speakers who have had to learn Danish. In Danish it is called juletid. And the English word gratis as in free: free is gratis in Danish. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group.
Create a free Team What is Teams? Learn more. How and in what way did the Danes come to influence English? Ask Question. Asked 10 years, 6 months ago. Active 8 years, 7 months ago. Viewed 16k times. I was looking for some insight into the farewell greeting ta on The Urban Dictionary just now, and came across this mostly excellent top-ranked answer adapted slightly, emphasis mine : A slang word for "thanks. Improve this question. Community Bot 1. The history of English language is usually divided up into four major periods that can be justified both on the basis of linguistic differences and on the basis of historical events that influenced the later development of English language [ 1 ].
These years are not strict boundaries but rough approximations. In the ninth century Vikings repeatedly attacked Britain. Initially, the Vikings would come at spring to plunder and plummage?? The earliest sources of Old English date from the eighth century Jucker, p. Nouns were assigned gender masculine, feminine or neuter and had five grammatical cases nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and, rarely, instrumental [ 2 ]. As Jucker points out?