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Returning to my original question, I doubt that referring to Saddam Hussein by his first name was as a sign of disrespect, as that is how HE HIMSELF preferred read demanded to be referred to by his own people during his reign. As I mentioned, a little while back when this was a matter of interest, there was almost unanimous consensus that the more proper way to refer to people in the Arab world would be by their "first" name, as their "second" name is merely the name of their father. Sort of like way back in English history when names like "Johnson" and "Williamson" were used as surnames for those with fathers named "John" or "William". It was explained in detail that this remains the practice in the Arabic world.
Yet Saddam seems to be the only one who retained this tradition. Is it perhaps falling out of practice just as it has in English? Loomis , 26 January UTC [ ]. I remember a French politician or general saying something about how there would always be more Germans of Germany then French. When did the Germans surpass the French in population? Or were there always more German people? I know it's hard to calculate this as the boundaries of modern day Germany differ from its historical incarnations and sometimes it didn't exist at all, but any estimate will do. Is there a complete list on Wikipedia or any other website, it doesn't matter of every American city named after a European city provided with the European country where the city is found?
Cambridge, Rome, St. Forgive me for complicating matters, but on a point of information New York is not named after Old York, but takes its name from James, duke of York, the brother of Charles II. I don't know if the above discussion has answered some questions that you may have had, Swang, but our Lists of North American place name etymologies might be of use to you. Slavery was abolished in ancient Rome before AC? There was slavery in Byzantine Impere? No, Vess, slavery was not abolished in Ancient Rome, though the advent of Christianity eventually brought gladiatorial contests to an end. However, changing economic conditions meant gradual changes in the conditions of servitude. Bit by bit, agricultural slavery was transformed into new modes of serfdom, as the Classical World gave way to the Middle Ages.
In practice, outright slavery and landed serfdom went hand in hand for centuries, through the Byzantine period and beyond. Even the church owned serfs and slaves. While slavery has never been abolished from the world, it has become uneconomic for progressive economies. Sexual slavery is still prevalent in some cliques. Laws are rarely made for social reasons.. To say nothing of women! Seriously, this is just too big to swallow whole. Break it up and come back with some more specific questions and we will see what we can do. On the face of it, and I've seen debating topics like it, the issues are what a debater finds convenient.
A way of viewing 'the maxim' is to compare it with other statements. One cannot coneive a million man army, however, by picturing a school assembley, and imagining a thousand such schools, one gets an idea. Let Pope do it  , i don't know why we should defend such a ridiculous utterance. You might also break the sentence into parts. For example, Mankind is really two words, 'mank' and 'ind.
I recently read a Wikipedia article about a Russian leader a tsar perhaps who is credited with expanding Russia and making it a more multi-ethnic country. Unfortunately I forgot which one, but I'm interested in learning how Russia got its borders and different groups of people, so I would really like to find him again. Remember, the article explicitly said that. Thank you! Evilbu , 25 January UTC [ ].
Hello, my name is sara zinn. I am having some trouble with my social studies homework. I need to know who all makes up the Supreme Court. Sara Zinn —The preceding unsigned comment was added by I got a question:. What are some uses for the English Channel. And also when in years , and how was the English Channel Made. England has no single national tv channel even in the UK. Clarityfiend , 26 January UTC [ ]. You might wish to do a case study on Spiro Agnew.
In a fictional sence, the US President is capable of embarrassing his running mate, and setting them up so that they feel no choice but to be honorable. That scenario presupposes a lot. What are the Laws regarding public display of firearms in New York City? Are you able to walk around in the streets with hunting rifles if the weapons are unconcealed and displayed nonthreatingly? Also whats the NYC laws for puchasing and owning hunting rifles and shotguns? Try these links,  and .
I hope you find what you are looking for. A friendly advice: avoid carrying guns at all. Many gun-related accidents have cost too many lifes everywhere. In the current clima of fear you only have to be unlucky once to find a scared trigger-friendly fool who will shoot you because you carried a gun and he was afraid for his life. Flamarande , 26 January UTC [ ]. This is serious. The police do their job so there is no need of a handgun. This is a very high priority for law enforcement. Plus, what are you going to hunt in NYC?
It is ridiculous. Does anyone know who this Field Marshal was? Are you sure this was a marshal? As far as I know, of all of Stalin's wartime marshals only Rodion Malinovsky had any Jewish background; and while he was the youngest born in I am not aware that he suffered to any degree from the Vozhd's alleged anti-semitism. I have a question for you, AndonicO. Who on earth, I have to ask, were the Jewish 'generals' in Hitler's army? Since we're looking for a Front commander, it would presumably be Ivan Chernyakhovsky. But he wasn't a marshal, and wasn't definitely Jewish. Has juvenile violence or crime been up or down in the last 25 years in the US? What about other industrialized countries? Oskar , 26 January UTC [ ]. There is lots of theory regarding juvenile crime.
Bringing up children to become productive, happy adults is a process known and practised for thousands of years. Juvenile crime is related to poverty , but not caused by it, and not solely dependant on it, many rich kids being violent as well. Child raising is highly related to juvenile crime , but again, it doesn't cause it, and some well brought up kids become delinquent. Dr Phil can give you some insights into juvenile violence.
As can Judge Judy. As for rates, statistics are not equal in aspect, so comparing rates from fifties to nineties is a less than meaningful exercise. Violent crimes involving guns at schools is rising. Many agree that media have much to be blamed for popularising this behaviour. Dumb gun laws and absent parents don't help. Violent pornography is readily accessable to all, and most case studies I've seen link drugs, pornography and mistreatment of animals.
Worth noting, there is less violence now than before, despite the rise of islamo fascism. Educational attainment is higher for all ethnicities in all progressive nations. Hey guys, I have been looking around various sites and came across this one, by far the best in reguards to overviews of various philosophers of science. However, I can find no relevence to psychology, I am aware of the various theories, eg.. It would be great if someone could get the ball rolling on this one Psychology is a pretty broad subject. It has branched out over the last hundred years into physical areas and social areas. There is greater depth to these areas. Is that progress? I understood the Ancient Egyptians believed thinking came from the heart.
Certainly, there has been progress since then. Social Psychology has advanced. As with all things, Psychology, as a science, owes much to things that precedes it, and rebadges them. All scientific experiments, on people, refer to the effect whereby people that believe they have a working product will feel it's effect. Yet that effect was seen, and predates modern Psychology by thousands of years. In terms of Lakotos, Kuhn, Popper et al, Psychology will not 'progress' until it is transformed. While tools may be better, specifics ever more detailed, Psychology is little different from when Freud worked with it.
Sometime in the ancient past a pope made a list of what the reason for war that the Vatican would accept in order for a war to be sanctioned by the pope. Who was the pope and what were the righteous reasons? The reasons are important because if a war is not sanctioned as righteous it is more difficult to get any form of backing including volunteers. Known reasons: war to end war, make the world safe for democracy. Recent military actions have been called police actions until Iraq became for "democracy". I know of no specific point at which the Vatican decided that there was a given set of circumstances that would allow a pope to justify violence in any abstract sense, or to legitimate war if a certain number of a priori conditions were met, if it might be so expressed.
Rather responses have developed over time and in accordance with prevailing historical circumstances. Although the early church fathers, particularly Tertullian, were inclined to condemn any form of state violence or warfare, attitudes began to change after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine. As the emperor was the instrument of God, Christian soldiers, tolerated before at best, were now given specific sanction by the church. In other words, fighting was acceptable when it was in the emperor's service, insofar as this service could be defined as the service of God. It was not the way to salvation as such; but neither was it the way to hell.
Augustine of Hippo was the first of the great churchmen to give some of these ideas a more philosophical form. In the City of God he condemns war, but qualifies this by saying that violence must be countered by violence in the preservation of peace. What is wrong is not war itself but some of the motives behind war, specifically greed, the desire for power, feelings of revenge or simple cruelty.
If war, on the other hand, is waged to restore peace, the soldiers become peacemakers. The just war and the just ruler, therefore, went hand-in-hand. But what if the ruler is not just: what if Caesar himself is the problem? This is an issue that first comes to serious prominence for the Papacy in the eleventh century, during the reign of the Emperor Henry IV. The church had steadily emerged from its position as 'hand-maiden' to the state, and had become a major player in its own right.
Pope Gregory VII, under threat from the emperor, urged all Christian warriors to rise in his defence, the first time in history, I believe, such an appeal had ever been made. This was not just permitted violence-something reluctantly sanctioned by the church in the past-but violence that carried a promise of reward; righteous violence, in other words. This, in essence, was the beginning of the notion of crusade, or holy war, later to be given a much more specific direction by Urban II and, above all, by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. By the early thirteenth century it was even possible for Innocent III, the greatest of the medieval popes, to declare, far removed from the position taken by Tertullian, that failure to fight could, in certain circumstances, be considered as a sin.
Of course, the historical circumstances in which these concepts were conceived no longer apply; but the church has not abandoned the notion of the just war, though it takes great care in defining the terms for such a course of action. Paragraph of the Catholic Catechism outlines some of the essential preconditions:. Well; there you go! Sorry, this has turned out to be longer and more detailed than intended; but I hope it goes part of the way towards answering your questions. Thomas Aquinas is the name I associate most readily with the concept of a just war - not a pope I think but a saint.
Apparently he says there must be a 'just cause' Hope that helps. Where in the world is genocide occuring It is worth noting that the word, Genocide , evolves with usage. The UN had difficulties making the charge of Genocide stick in the aftermath of Nazi Germany, or Cambodia, and the definition has changed so that, in a legal sence, pastoral care activity has been labeled genocide, as with Australia and her indigenous population. Do you have data about Greek Gods and Goddesses and their relationships with each other and mortals organized, on a timeline, or perhaps, family trees that I can use as a resource for my sixth grade Social Studies classes? Thank you.
Rita: Which political parties in Lebanon are: a Shi'a? Hezbollah b Christian? Kataeb Party c Sunni? Rafik Hariri's party d Druze? Which political parties in Bangladesh are Islamist? I know some of those lessons are poise, and manners. What are all of them? Maths, English, science, history, geography, probably French, etc. The things that make aristocrats appear aristocratic are acquired naturally through being brought up in aristocratic families, not through "lessons". My concern is that if Jimbo Wales is the big Wikipedia cheese, what's to stop him doing unpleasant things with Wikipedia that I might not like? Theoretically, if he wanted, could he start charging for access to Wikipedia? What other terrible schemes could he potentially be planning?
What about the other members of the board - could they vote him out and take over? Whatever will we do?! Are there any major cities named after Carthage? What are the meanings of different colors painted on feathers in the Blackfoot Indian culture? What was his life story? How did he die? How successful were his writings during his lifetime? Canonical depictions of medieval European princesses nearly always include a tall, conical hat with an attached veil; see for example Google Image search for "princess hat".
What is the name of this type of headgear? When was it worn, and by whom? Glen Baxter was apparently convinced that it was a wimple , and used it under that name in many cartoons. Now it certainly appears he was wrong. On the Spanish site of Pinochet, it say he was a Chilean military man, politician and dictator. On the English site it says he was a general and president of Chile.
Same man, sounds different, though he was all. Therefore 2 questions to this please: 1 Does the primarily English-speaking community online British, Americans, Australians, Canadians, etc. And why exactly behind the Caucasus? Is there some historic reference I am missing? Evilbu , 27 January UTC [ ]. I'm very excited about it, because thanks to the occasional contributor, its completion is within view. I was wondering, if you wouldn't mind helping complete it. It doesn't have to be done all at once; adding one definition per Wikipedia session, or so, would be a great help and would speed things up immensely.
The help needed is to fill in missing definitions. The method I've been using is to follow the link of each term, and cut and paste its definition from the lead section of its article. I then edit it down or even rewrite it to be less wordy and easier to follow, and I make a judgment as to the size of the entry based on the understanding it presents.
For major and difficult terms, I try to keep them down to six lines. Others down to 3 or 4. The glossary is getting pretty close to completion. If a handful of people completed one definition per day each, it would be done very soon. Please take a look, to see if this is something you could help out with: Glossary of philosophical isms. For example, suppose a politician owns the only food stores in town and has found a way to keep you out of his stores if you do not vote for him to be mayor or a thief who demands you leave your purse or wallet unsecured except by store personnel at the register before entering the store. Is there a law that regulates this kind of supra-requirement or can retailers get away with demanding things other than legal tender to shop in their store?
The point is that the store does not ask as a precondition for entering the store if you have legal tender but rather something else. As has already been stated, walking around a store does not involve having a debt, yet. A better question would be does a store have the legal right to not accept anything higher than a twenty dollar bill. There are examples of this all around us. Zeno , 29 January UTC [ ]. Perhaps this is why bus stations offer lockers as mentioned above so as to reduce risk and to defer liability to building insurance, business insurance or to the insurance carrier for the lockers. In any case I think it is reasonable that a proprietor be required by law to accept liability for any possession he confiscates especially, if not only, in a situation where the shopper has no other immediate alternative to purchase food including alternatives for which he possesses insufficient legal tender.
Without any laws to regulate liability of confiscation this area of the law remains lawless. What are the differences between Shia and Sunni believers in Islam? Why the intolerence and potential civil war in Iraq between these groups? In a nutshell, forgive the innaccuracies, the Shia, Sunni divide comes from the time following the death of Mohammed. Mohammed had children who vied for political power with the generals who fought alongside Mohammed. The generals picked off the children of Mohammed assassination.
Finaly, a grandson of Mohammed, believed to be the last, was killed. Sunni take the view that the death ended Mohammed's line. Shia take the view an angel intervened, and swapped the grandson with another, until such a time as the grandson, or a descendant, shall return to lead. There are those who believe the European royal houses are decended from Mohammed. Looking northeast we saw an immense plain without any trees, through which the water extends for a long distance, having in it several little islands of lowland. And finally, on the other side of the immense plain, and at a distance of about forty leagues, we saw a great Sierra Nevada whose trend appeared to me to be from south-southeast to north-northwest.
On a map of by Ortelius the name Sierra Nevada appears near the coast but farther north, due to an error in description. As more specific names came to be applied to the coast mountains, it is not surprising to find this common general name moving farther and farther into the interior to designate in a vague way some less familiar range Just when the name Sierra Nevada finally became fixed would be hard to say. As so often happens to me on wikipedia Ill start with some random topic, in this case Trotsky, and end up with something completely different, The Fall of France. It says that Germany occupied France from till So, could one state, that from France was Germany? I mean thats a long time to be occupied. If one were to look back in the history books say years from now, and look up the the history of french territory from like the Battle of Hastings to the present would they conclude that there was NO France from ?
Its kind of intersting to think about The first point to consider is that diplomacy and politics continue even in the midst of war and occupation. France continued to be a legal, national and international entity during the period of German occupation. With the possible exception of the provinces of Alsace and part of Lorraine, it remained technically independent, and was most assuredly not part of Germany. Second, it should also be noted that while the armistice of June divided France into occupied and unoccupied zones, the whole nevertheless remained under the overall control of the government established at Vichy. Even after the occupation of all of metropolitan France in November Vichy remained, in a technical sense at least, the legitimate source of authority.
Following the liberation of the Vichy authorities were taken to Germany, where they formed a government in exile. As far as the general issue of occupation is concerned, very few of the conquered territories in Europe were actually incorporated into Grossdeutschland as such. And questioner, as you mentioned the Battle of Hastings in passing, it might help to clarify the position even further if I point out that even after this seminal event England did not become Normandy. Does anyone have information on this? No article. This website has some information: . It's about the justice system in the mining town of Cariboo ,but I'm sure many of the steps taken to enforce the law there would have been taken in other mining towns as well.
Apparently James Douglas Governor initiated a mining licence system. He then hired policemen. There were also several courts established:the Gold Commissioner's Court,who ruled in cases regarding the gold mines;the civil court,who ruled in cases regarding disputes not connected with the gold mines;the bankruptcy court,for businesses who had to close because they weren't making enough money to stay open;and the police court,which ruled in more serious matters such as murder. Serenaacw , 15 December UTC [ ]. This issue is interesting from an Australian perspective, as Australia is still growing thanks to the Gold Rush started in Legal issues found definition at the Eureka Stockade. I have Chinese ancestry because a great great grandfather sailed to Australia in , worked the gold fields for twenty years, returned to China leaving family behind and was executed.
Australian goldfields had expanded rapidly. Prospectors had to purchase a claim, and then were legally entitled to pan or dig. Licenses got expensive. Industries rose in support of mine workers, diversifying wealth and opportunity, so that Melbourne was once rated the world's richest city federation, As this doesn't really seem to be a reference desk question, I have moved this to your talk page. It can be found here , and if people want to discuss this topic with you they can do it there. Skittle , 28 January UTC [ ].
Scientists moved into the lab from the great civic botanic gardens of the European Renaissance, the successors to medieval herb gardens, after civic botanic gardens developed astronomical observatories and chemical labs in the advance of physics and chemistry, especially after the triumph of organic chemistry, the chemistry of artificial synthesis.
I have spent years thinking about the juxtaposition of synthetic and organic, as well as industrial society and its impact on organic nature as a consequence of the development of modern science in alliance with technology. Tillich characterizes this development in his MIT address as an aim without an aim. It is clear that the concept of telos is almost as despised and rejected in modern science as vital force. I want to get back to the garden, re-affirm the integrity of organic nature, and engage in utopian expectations. In my view, gardens best symbolize the utopian imagination—they are the memory of the Garden of Eden and an anticipation of the future restoration of the original horizon of goodness in the Kingdom of God, the Heavenly Jerusalem, Paradise, the New Heaven and New Earth, where ripe fruit never falls.
The historical sequence, beginning in the Renaissance, looks like a betrayal of this vision: first they went out throughout the world looking for the Garden of Eden. Columbus was looking for it when he discovered America. When they could not locate it geographically, they settled for the great civic botanic gardens throughout Europe as Eden restored. The rebirth of Western culture was celebrated in botanic gardens, the major expression of the Renaissance, beginning with Padua and Pisa, in Italy. And then they became seedbeds of modern science and the age of the Plantocracy gave way to the emerging Technocracy—from Plantocrat to Technocrat.
I first heard Tillich speak when I was a student at St. Olaf College, in l He gave three lectures on Existentialism. I went on from St. Olaf to Luther Theological Seminary to pursue a career in the Lutheran ministry. The Seminary thought Tillich was the enemy and they were ill disposed to Luther, so I transferred to Harvard Divinity School, because Tillich had been appointed to Harvard. I became his teaching assistant for his last two years there. This reflected glory was not particularly good for me because we were applauded every time we opened our mouths.
Students applauded me because I told them what Tillich meant sans his German accent. A new earth, an everlasting spring i. I remember when I found the essay in which this quote appears when I was studying at Union Seminary one summer because Tillich was lecturing. I copied out the essay in longhand and eventually published it in a small volume: The Meaning of Health. So I thought a garden was appropriate on a former ranch, on the edge of the wilderness, where the frontier had run out to sea.
Once the garden at UCSC began, we were able to apply the Virgilian and Goethean theme of Arcadia to the biblical themes of Eden and Paradise, in terms of garden motifs, because the gardener I hired to do the job practised a form of horticulture, which had its origins in Goethe. The Biodynamic system of food and flower production, which was developed in the early decades of this century, by Rudolf Steiner, the great follower of Goethe. Goethe had taken a famous walk in the late l8th century—his Italian Journey—for which he adopted the slogan: Et in Arcadia Ego.
And I am in Arcadia. Chadwick and I took it as our motto for the garden project. Our gardener, not unlike the gardener in the absurdist novel by Kosinski—Being There— pun intended, was a major event in my life. He simply appeared, as though on a cloud, to assume the duties of developing a student garden project. His name was Alan Chadwick. He was Chauncey Gardener. The defeat, refutation and elimination of Vitalism accounts for the abrogation of the integrity of organic nature.
This was why an organic garden was an offensive repristination in the eyes of the scientists on the campus, because it seemed like a Neo-Vitalist spook come back from the dead. This startled me as I had no idea such an ideological grudge lurked in the precincts of the scientific revolution. I should have known better. Put more simply, Chadwick, with his spade, broke through the Physicalist crust and hardpan of the University and with a Neo-Vitalist affirmation, renewed the integrity of organic nature. Physicalism was burdened by its refutation and rejection of Vitalism, understood simply as the argument in behalf of the integrity of organic nature, against its reduction to physical and chemical forces. Searching for an illustration of the point, I found the key date—l—when the German chemist, Friedrich Woehler artificially synthesized urea, the experiment credited with the refutation and collapse of Vitalism, the experiment and its consequences responsible for undermining organic nature, such that it had to be re-discovered and re-affirmed a century and a half later in the environmental movement, a NeoVitalist revolt.
Centuries earlier, Galileo and Newton, with mathematical physics, had laid the foundation for this chemical insult. Hans Jonas calls this development since Galileo, an ontology of death, juxtaposed to Vitalism, an ontology of life, in a broad interpretation of Western culture from its origins in Ancient Greece, with the European Renaissance as the dividing line. Mater, mother, Mother Earth, becomes materialism, the dead stuff underlying the dead things in space. After commenting on the ancient ontology of life, where everything is alive and death is the big mystery, Jonas describes their reversal:.
Death is the natural thing, life the problem. From the physical sciences there spread over the conception of all existence an ontology whose model entity is pure matter, stripped of all features of life. What at the animistic stage was not even discovered has in the meantime conquered the vision of reality, entirely ousting its counterpart. The tremendously enlarged universe of modern cosmology is conceived as a field of inanimate masses and forces which operate according to the laws of inertia and quantitative distribution in space. This denuded substratum of all reality could only be arrived at through a progressive expurgation of vital features from the physical record and through strict abstention from projecting into its image our own felt aliveness.
In the process the ban on anthropomorphism was extended to zoomorphism in general. What remained is the residue of the reduction toward the properties of mere extension which submit to measurement and hence to mathematics. These properties alone satisfy the requirements of what is now called exact knowledge: and representing the only knowable aspect of nature they, by a tempting substitution, came to be regarded as its essential aspect too: and if this, then as the only real in reality. This means that the lifeless has become the knowable par excellence and is for that reason also considered the true and only foundation of reality. Not only in terms of relative quantity but also in terms of ontological genuineness, nonlife is the rule, life the puzzling exception in physical existence.
Beware of Greeks bearing gifts, only instead of a Trojan Horse and Achilles with his ash spear, we had Alan Chadwick and his Bulldog spade. We had sneaked in an organic garden, in the strictly Vitalist tradition of Steiner and Goethe, mirabile dictu, under the unsuspecting noses of the members of the science establishment, who were sleeping at the switch, thinking the debate had long been put to rest with the burial of the dead corpse of Vitalism securely in the grave. Then came Earth Day. The corpse of Vitalism revived and sat up.
Now the question is whether the environmental movement is anything more than the death rattle of defeated Vitalism. Who can say, as the future of the earth is being weighed in the balance. The date is l Goethe had died a decade earlier. We had stumbled onto this subtext that seemed to be taken for granted. Hardly anyone talked about it. It was considered a done deal. After all, he published his study under the auspices of Carnap and the Vienna Circle, the international camp of the Physicalists. An anecdote is in order here. When Tillich had a public debate with Carnap, Carnap acted as if there was nothing to talk about, they inhabited such discrete universes of discourse, reminiscent of J.
Thomas replied he would have to keep his hand up all the time. Tillich, in his wisdom, thought he would break the ice and asked Carnap how he would define blushing! Carnap, of course, talked about a certain pigmentation in the cheeks while everyone watched him blush. I assume you know about Rosenstock-Huessy, one of the great thinkers of this century and the author of one of the finest books ever written about Western culture: Out Of Revolution, Autobiography of Western Man.
Eugen had been inspired by William James and agreed with notion that Americans harbored a. All you had to do was blow on it to make it incandescent. Years later, following upon his experience with the C. The Garden eventually developed a Farm and an Agro-ecology Apprentice training program in organic horticulture and agriculture, the first in the country. In effect, it was the replay of Camp William James without our knowing it, where the reaffirmation of the integrity of organic nature takes its place in the historical tradition of the moral equivalent of war. Chadwick introduced me to two themes that became guides for the future: an economy of gift and an ethic of superabundance, although the formulations came from Paul Ricoeur.
In l, seven years after arriving in Santa Cruz, my career was over. I thought the Garden, which took an immense amount of time, would count for a bad book, but I was wrong. Adams was the advocate of nonprofit corporations, in his work on voluntary associations, as a Professor of Social Ethics at Harvard Divinity School. I learned from him that one of the first acts of Hitler was to close all offices with a phone and a typewriter, namely, what we would call nonprofits. Williams provides the historic date for the inception of voluntary associations, when Joseph Blaurock, a Roman Catholic priest, was re-baptised, initiating the Anabaptist movement of the left wing of the Protestant Reformation, representing the free spontaneous behavior of the redeemed and establishing the principle of the freedom of assembly or the freedom of worship.
It was a propitious move. We started the Whole Earth Restaurant on the campus for the garden to supply and eventually organized over twenty affiliate projects exceeding a couple of million dollars a year in cash flow. The William James Association was the second nonprofit. I remember the day when Page walked in and sat down at our kitchen table and said we should start the William James Association and re-establish the Civilian Conservation Corps, which was fine by me, since I saw it as a vehicle for the Chadwick Method of organic gardening and replanting the vital root. It needed an army. In l, Page and I turned our attention to the homeless problem and organized the Citizens Committee for the Homeless and opened the first public shelter. In l, I started the Homeless Garden Project and the chickens came home to roost.
We were able to get apprentices from the Chadwick Garden to help teach the homeless how to garden and out of this came a Community Supported Agriculture CSA program where over one hundred families paid x number of dollars for a share in the coming harvest. This brought back the themes of an economy of gift and an ethic of superabundance, which I had learned from Chadwick. We got the J. Do you know why? Because it leads to the ecstatic utterances of Paul about how it comes back to you, heaped up, overflowing, pouring out in your lap. The measure you give is the measure you get back. The lack of measure is the good measure. Then came Ecotopia. I was inspired. I thought I would never hit bottom in despair over the homeless.
I thought of the homeless as the symbolic scapegoats of the late stage of the self-destruction of industrial society. Their homes had self-destructed and they were the victims out in the cold. I was going to turn Santa Cruz into Ecotopia. It would be easy to secede. The geography is ideally suited for the stunt. Border kiosks would admit you, where you would get your Ecotopia passport, your green consumer card and discounts. Your visit would be scored for you according to your environmenal interests beginning with two featured attractions—the Circle Trail and the Ecology Hall of Fame. I started to look to the next millennium as a possible horizon of hope.
It was twenty years later. I got it! I just signed an Americorps contract for a million dollars for our Homeless Garden Project, giving us 24 positions at ten grand, plus five grand an education bonus , per recruit, for three years. Gardens are being dug at ten schools in Santa Cruz as we speak. This should be utopian enough for one lifetime, but I still have a few years left. None of this runs smoothly, let me tell you, community service can often be a royal pain.
I learned a good lesson from Chadwick about enduring all the vicissitudes of personality conflict and cross purposes, because he was a classic neurasthenic. The lesson was the difference between idiosyncratic display and institutional process. Keep your eye on the prize. Personality displays are like the weather. Take them in stride. Now for the cold shower. It was a major whoops. Nothing like subjecting yourself to the most penetrating and unrelenting criticism. So here it is. I had read his piece on Sir Thomas More, which is dutifully appreciative. He did not release his venom until this one. Tillich then says something we should all try to understand, especially if it applies to ourselves, as he says it does.
The first is that those who are disillusioned may become fanatics against their own past. This is especially true of those—the intelligentsia above all—who at some time in their life committed themselves to a utopia not as something preliminary but as something ultimate. This has happened to the intelligentsia in America, and objectively and humanly it is one of the saddest and most problematic experiences of American existence, as I believe it to be of Western existence generally and far beyond. This whole class of men represents today one of the most tragic groups in human society and in a certain respect one of the most dangerous because they inevitably transfer their fanaticism against themselves to everyone who does not share it and whom they therefore take to be a secret friend of those against whom their fanaticism is directed.
It reminds me of the 3rd use of the law in Lutheran doctrine, of which I have a rather garbled understanding, I am willing to admit. It is mostly rejected by Lutherans as a Calvinist heresy that sneaked in under Melancthon. I define it as the free spontaneous behavior of the redeemed. The imp in impulse is not always a demon. Socrates called it his guardian who always told him what not to do, a kind of negative check on impulses. Aristotle called it eudaemonism—a state of blessedness. But the contradiction of expectations is central to the biblical picture of the Christ as Paradox and Offense. It is what drove the disciples to forsake him and flee when he wa s arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane on the night he was betrayed.
There is a protective measure against the inevitable disillusionment of utopian expectations—the confession of self-delusion as expressed in the Platonic Dialogues as a central feature of Socrates, usually misunderstood as the confession of ignorance where it loses its bite. The confession of self-delusion is the Socratic equivalent of repentance which Luther says is a continuous frame of mind. In reviewing my own projects, I try to practice this frame of mind in order to keep from the disillusionment.
Tillich describes as the price one pays for utopian dreaming. I know it is small potatoes in the larger scheme of things. If only he had been a gardener! I overcame the Kantian recoil from the unknown root when I developed a second career in the herbal industry after I left the university and thought vital roots—medicinal and culinary herbs—were the antidote..
I worked up a cookbook on vital roots as an answer to Heidegger, called Being and Thyme, as yet unpublished. The most important part is just that someone has to be sacrificed to save significantly more. If some member of a group needs to make the sacrifice, the question of Who Will Bell the Cat? A catchphrase of every other Hive Mind. The Small Steps Hero either doesn't believe in this or finds it inseparable from everyday acts of kindness. See also Friend or Idol Decision. When the sacrifice turns out to have been inadequate, or the wrong people are sacrificed through misunderstanding or inadequate information, My God, What Have I Done?
See Original Position Fallacy for characters who only hold this view because they assume that they're part of the "many" and not the "few". Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account. Gut-wrenching example in Attack on Titan. When Wall Maria is abandoned, there are too many refugees to feed and the food supplies look grim. When Luna is captured by a monster called a Shadow Knight, it tells Sora it will only free Luna if Sora removes the barrier protecting the village. Sora initially sought help from her fellow Fairies to save her sister, but her village's chieftain refused, prioritizing the safety of the many within the barrier rather than the one who was captured due to leaving it.
Sora can understand the reasoning, but can not forgive it. It is for this reason that, once the Shadow Knight is defeated by Rain's group and the sisters are reunited, they decide to leave the forest for a while, ultimately joining and contracting with Rain. Black Bullet : Rentaro Satomi's For Happiness ethics have an interesting variation of "The happiness for others outweigh the happiness of myself.
In Bokurano , Kodama follows a particularly twisted form of this trope — to him, it's fine if 10, or more civilians die in his battle with the enemy robot as long as he wins, thereby saving all 10 billion people on the planet with the bonus being that the property damage will create work for his father's company. The other pilots call him out on this, saying that every life has value not to mention that most of the casualties were probably avoidable , but to no avail. Interestingly, Kiritsugu, who would sacrifice the few to save the many, Kuro, the wielder of the Archer card who carries Kiritsugu's beliefs, and Shirou, whose original philosophy was to save everyone, chose to save the ones they loved at the expense of others. Only Illya decides that she wants to save everyone.
A recurring theme in Final Fantasy: Lost Stranger is how much is one life worth versus that of the many, and if it's worth risking many lives to save one. For most part, Shogo defies with this notion after the Heroic Sacrifice of his sister , always trying to Take a Third Option to save as many people as he can even if it means risking his own life.
Marcoh in Fullmetal Alchemist is forced to work for the Big Bad or they'll destroy the village he lives in. Envy mocks him afterwards over the fact they plan to wipe out the entire country so it would have been smarter for him to sacrifice the village. This is basically the backstory of Axl RO, a minor antagonist appearing early in the work. He was drafted into the army during the American Civil war and his mission consisted of being a lookout stationed in a tree at a remote town.
His job was to light a lamp in order to warn the soldiers nearby of an incoming enemy troop. He, however, refused to do so fearing that the light would give away his position, possibly leading to his capture and execution at the hands of the enemy. The troops then marched and burned the town to the ground, killing all the civilians and soldiers stationed there. Since then, Axl has been trying to find a way to repent for his sins. This is reflected by the power of his stand, Civil War, which is able to transfer or unload sin and guilt via the attacks of hostile, ghostly representations of people and objects Axl or his targets harbor as having wronged or unfairly discarded.
He was going to freeze Hayate for all eternity to stop the cycle of the Book of Darkness destroying planets, despite the fact that she had never done anything wrong. Mobile Suit Gundam Wing is capped off by Zechs Merquise and Treize Khushrenada trying to bring world peace by starting a war so utterly horrifying and pointless that humanity will gladly move to the negotiating table.
Both are perfectly fine with being Silent Scapegoats for this cause, but it still weighs on them; at one point Treize utterly averts A Million Is a Statistic by giving the exact number of people who have died so far and says he also knows the names of everyone who has died in his service. Unfortunately, the lesson doesn't quite take until The Movie , where Relena and, in the Special Edition, Dorothy finally get the civilians to realize that they can't just Hold Out for a Hero forever.
Though this does become quite hypocritical of them when they decide what "many" these needs help. Such as destroying a battleship filled with marines just to kill 1 pirate and even killing a marine who dares question the order. Sailor Moon 's refusal to do this in the S series is what enraged Uranus and Neptune near the end, as Sailor Moon couldn't stand sacrificing Hotaru to save the world she didn't have to, but the conflict of one person vs. Saiyuki deliberately defies this as being selfish jerks is essential for their success, because this way they have a chance to survive their mission. The most blatant example occurs in Hakkai 's backstory, when he goes completely insane after his sister is sacrificed to the local demon clan for the sake of saving the village, murders half the villagers along with most of the demon clan , only to witness her commit suicide.
One of the survivors points out that he basically ruined everyone's lives for the sake of his own happiness, and while the reader is clearly not supposed to sympathize with the character, the villagers' actual justification not wanting to give up their own daughters, choosing an orphan instead and claiming that orphans would never understand how they feel anyway doesn't exactly sound convincing in the context, either. In Saiyuki Reload , Sanzo and company stop in a town that is said to be protected from demons thanks to a barrier spell maintained by the local priest — raising some questions, since Sanzo's three "servants" happen to be demons themselves, which the priest seemingly couldn't even tell despite Goku and Hakkai wearing Power Limiters and Gojyo having the typical crimson hair of a half-demon.
It quickly turns out that the barrier is a hoax, and the priest kept sacrificing unwitting travelers to the nearby pack of demons in exchange for the demons staying out of the town — because, in the priest's opinion, no local would ever start thinking about how exactly they're protected as long as they're safe. Then the townspeople are revealed to be aware of the scheme, to the priest's utter shock — but they really do not mind as long as they're safe. Sanzo's team is completely disgusted by their attitude since they apparently didn't even consider the alternative of fighting the demons off.
Seirei Gensouki: Spirit Chronicles : Beltrum's government knows there is no hard proof that Rio accidentally pushed Flora off a cliff, but they decide he's a convenient scapegoat to avoid blaming an important noble house and potentially sparking a conflict between the dukes. Which ends up being All for Nothing when Duke Arbor starts a coup for different reasons. Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann : Using this trope as a mantra is why Simon is happy with the series ending despite the heart-rendingly painful price he had to pay to save the universe. It perfectly shows how strong and heroic Simon has become. It's also extremely Japanese. Rossiu ends up following this trope. In the village where he grew up, the priest was willing to keep to the strict population limit of 50 by any means necessary, even exiling people to almost certain death on the surface if they ended up with too many.
After the Time Skip , Rossiu was willing to sentence his long-time friend Simon to death as a scapegoat to appease the masses, and take a small fraction of humanity into space and leave everyone else to die in order to avoid humanity's extinction. Undefeated Bahamut Chronicle : Fugil Arcadia believes in ruthlessly protecting the masses at the expense of individuals. He tells Lux that in trying to save Philuffy, who was turned part Abyss due to an experiment, he's putting the whole kingdom at risk of their enemies taking control of her and using her to destroy the country from within.
His adherence to this trope causes him to backstab Listelka, who only seeks political power at the expense of the world's citizens. A recurring theme in many of Gen Urobuchi 's works: Discussed in Puella Magi Madoka Magica : The Incubators defend their decisions to use the souls of magical girls tortured to the point of absolute despair to prevent Universal Entropy on the basis of humans similarly using cattle in order to eat. Also, the Incubators, by interfering in human affairs, have brought Civilization and technology to the human species at the expense of a few magical girls sacrificing themselves. In other words, the needs of both Humans and Incubators outweigh the needs of a Magical Girl. In the end, Madoka, while disgusted at the callousness of the Incubators, accepted their logic, and decided to sacrifice herself to absorb all Magical Girls' despair at every point in space and time in order to save them yet allowing the benefits given by the Incubators to influence humanity.
A win-win scenario on the expense of Madoka's very own existence. The contradiction in this ideal is also exposed by the corrupted Grail when he gets shown an illusion where he has to save either the many or the few until he has killed people for his two most beloved people. His alternate solution was to get access to a perfect, omnipotent Reality Warper wish-granting artifact to save everyone. Unfortunately for him, even if the Grail hadn't been corrupted, it wouldn't have helped because the Grail is a Literal Genie that can only provide the power to the methodology of Kiritsugu's choice, not a perfect omnipotent thing with all the answers.
He is noted to have gone soft after joining the Einzbern family. Early in the War he bombs a hotel to kill an enemy Master but calls in a bomb threat first. In the past, he would have just killed everyone in the building to be absolutely certain his target died too. Civilian casualties weren't a concern for him, because so long as he killed his target he was saving more people in the long term.
The Sibyl System in Psycho-Pass falls into this. The Sibyl System consists of brains of criminally asymptomatic individuals that want to "perfect" society. The ideal society that the Sibyl System wanted to create involves an isolationist Japan where society is focused on pleasure and happiness. However, this involves the elimination of individuality and sacrificing undesirables from political critics, emotionally unstable individuals, students, teachers, and even farmers to create their perfect society. Akane does not like how the Sibyl System was operating particularly the idea of killing people to protect others once she found out the Awful Truth , but she still continues to work with the system because she believes that there is a better alternative to maintaining society while bringing order and justice at the same time.
However, according to Touma, he exposes the irony on the Sibyl System's beliefs, as their members highly value their own unique individuality over the average citizen as they believe that they are morally, mentally, and philosophically superior to everyone else , and thus they are more fit to rule society. Yet, for their value of uniqueness, they don't see the irony of being Hive Mind , thus showing the irony that the Sibyl System only benefits their members and not everyone else. In Vinland Saga , Canute uses this trope as defense for his actions.
By appropriating land by force, he gains wealth. Through wealth, he can attract Vikings. By attracting Vikings, he can select who they fight, or encourage them to settle his lands in peace. By directing and settling Vikings, he saves the rest of the world from their predations. Discussed in Weathering With You. As the weather gets steadily worse, Keisuke muses aloud if letting Hina be sacrificed so that the millions of residents in the Kanto region can get back stable weather isn't a fair trade that will make more people happy than it costs the one.
It speaks to how dire the situation is that Natsumi, who is normally quick to call him out on his foolishness and had in fact done so mere moments ago on another matter, says nothing about this. Discussed in World Trigger , between Chika and her mentor Reiji. At one point Reiji reveals that his father was a rescue worker, but died to save a child's life. Chika attempts to console him, stating that he was able to get the child out alive, but Reiji points out that he could have saved more people if he had survived. His father even inspired Reiji to follow the ideal that rescuers who don't return alive fail.
Comic Books. The titular heroine of Albedo: Erma Felna EDF face a similar dilemma like Simon , except the sacrifice was even bigger : in the final part of the first Story Arc , Erma's homeworld is attacked by enemy forces the ILR , while the ILR are ignoring they were part of a False Flag Operation from a member of Erma's own side, in this case her former boyfriend. Erma is forced to save her planet first from being destroyed while being unable to save her family, and also her actual boyfriend getting killed during the whole conflict, without mention she was exiled from her world after that as retaliation from both her ex and her own corrupt army in an attempt to get rid of her. The League of Shadows , led by Ra's Al Ghul, has been around for centuries wiping out any civilizations that they think have become too corrupt, in order to stop them from spreading their corruption to the rest of the world.
Their creed is to place the needs of others before self. In Gold Digger , almost all of the atrocities Dreadwing has committed mass murder, torture, rape, enslavement, etc. She needed a pawn to help her build the Infinity Engine, a machine that will assist in stopping the undead previous universe from wiping out the current one. Therefore, she indirectly gave Dreadwing the Time Raft to take revenge on T'Mat and her council and his obsession over the device would be his undoing as he eventually was blasted millions of years into the past where Ancient Gina had him work on the Infinity Engine.
Parodied in Runaways , where a villain is trying to justify an attempt to exterminate the entire human race "for the greater good," and quotes the Star Trek example as "proof. Superman has been the situation more than once where he is painfully aware that an individual is in mortal peril, but he can't get to that person immediately because he has to handle another emergency at that moment where there are multiple people in equal danger. His successor is even worse, barely keeping up the pretense of acting for the greater good. In Watchmen , Veidt 's final plan is to kill millions of people in order to trick everyone else into world peace. It will eventually breed out their transforming abilities, but it is the only way the Species can survive.
Passionate Pragmatism : Erwin and Hange feel that making sacrifices is sometimes necessary in order to maximizing happiness. In Hellsister Trilogy , Supergirl and fellow Legionnaire Dev-Em argue because of her unwillingness to let one little girl die to protect their cover during a mission. Dev points out leaders often have to sacrifice a few lives to save a greater number of people.
Kara Zor-El: shaking her head Oh, Dev. I thought I knew you better than that. I thought you knew me better than that. If we don't step in to save people from the evil we're fighting, then what in Sheol are we fighting it for? In case you don't know, commanders have to make decisions that will endanger some innocents, perhaps even kill them— Kara: Not me. Not ever. Dev: —Perhaps even kill them, to save the greater number and achieve the greater objective. You have to hold to the greater objective. You simply have to. There is no escaping that fact. Naomasa: Someone has to hold him accountable. Mortar: It'll do more harm than good if you do. Face it, detective, that man puts away more villains than any other hero. He does more for this country and its people than we can ever measure.
Naomasa: We can, actually. There are people in the Commission who make a career out of it. Let him be, detective. It's worth putting up with a few missteps for the sake of the greater good.