Alfalfa Research Paper
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Alfalfa sprouts were the only exposure associated with E. Seeds used for sprouting were traced back to one com- mon lot harvested in Idaho. New subtyping tools such as PFGE used in this investigation are essential to link isolated infections to a single outbreak. Escherichia coli OH7 was first recognized as a identification of alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated human pathogen in and has since emerged as a major seeds as a new vehicle for E. In addition, E. Independent studies were done in Michigan and Vir- Most foodborne outbreaks associated with E. In June and July , the state health departments of Michigan and Virginia concur- Michigan rently received an increased number of reports of E.
During July environmental, and laboratory investigations that led to the 27, , we conducted a case-control study in Michigan, using a questionnaire designed to test hypotheses developed Address for correspondence: Thomas Breuer, Infectious Disease Epide- during in-depth interviews with seven ill persons. Other food items whether that item would have been eaten in a typical week known to be vehicles for E. A case was defined as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, or Laboratory Methods both, in a resident of Michigan with onset of symptoms from PFGE subtyping of E.
Ill persons were interviewed by Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN as described 2. A subset of telephone about their illness and exposures during the 7 isolates 12 from Michigan and 24 from Virginia were sent days before onset of symptoms. Two age group-, sex-, and to CDC for simultaneous PFGE subtyping, phage typing, neighborhood- based on the same telephone prefix matched and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. PFGE subtyping of controls were selected for each patient.
Controls were asked alfalfa sprouts in the week before illness. In addition, questions were asked about the con- predominant pattern of isolates in Michigan were considered sumption of selected food items such as alfalfa sprouts and the outbreak strain. Phage typing was done by the reviewed. We initiated a case- azole 4. The seed were cultured for E. The broths were streaked to Michigan investigators. The concen- nationwide E. Sweeps of growth on all plates were tested by poly- persons. Controls were matched with case-patients by age, merase chain reaction for stx1, stx2, and uidA gene sex, and geographic location, with 1 to 3 controls per case. Ill persons identified retail outlets restaurants, markets A confirmed case was defined as diarrheal illness three and dates of purchase.
Retail outlets identified shippers and or more loose stools in a hour period occurring in a Vir- growers of alfalfa seed. The origin of implicated seed was ginia resident or nonresident if the person was seen in a determined by reviewing seed supplier invoices and delivery Virginia health-care facility for treatment with onset of records. A successful trace-back from a patient who had symptoms from June 1 to September 5, , and a stool cul- eaten sprouts was defined as one in which the grower and ture that yielded E.
After the alfalfa sprouts PFGE pattern. Potential controls were excluded if they were traced back to one specific lot of seeds, we investigated reported having had diarrhea in the 2 months before the the seed processing company and the fields from which they interview or if they were not living in their current residence were harvested. Controls were asked about the same time period as the Statistical Methods matched patient. No other food item—or swim- ming—was positively associated with illness.
Seventy-four persons with E. Thirty-eight patients had illness that met 42 Figure. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the case definition Figure. Sixty-six only exposure positively and significantly associated with ill- percent of patients reported that they received antibiotics; ness. The only food item positively No other food item was significantly associated with illness. When controls were asked about lates had indistinguishable PFGE patterns with restriction alfalfa sprout consumption for the same 7-day interval as ill enzyme XbaI and BlnI.
Three isolates were also tested by Figure. Date of onset of illness for persons with Escherichia coli OH7 infection and the outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern, Michigan and Virginia, June to September Demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with The implicated seed lot was a blend of five lots from four Escherichia coli OH7 infections and the outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, Michigan and Virginia, farms, harvested from to The seed processor and the farmers were all located in Idaho.
Manure is not Median age, years range 31 33 normally applied in alfalfa fields in Idaho; however, cattle Female, no. The alfalfa fields of one of Signs and symptoms, no. Manure may have leaked or been illegally dumped next to feedlots. In addition, Diarrhea 38 44 run-off water from neighboring fields, which is collected in Abdominal cramps 37 97 40 furrows and sometimes used to irrigate alfalfa fields, could Bloody stool 36 95 38 95 carry manure to the fields. Three of the four farmers Vomiting 20 53 26 62 reported at least occasionally seeing deer in their fields. In fact, one had fields next to a wildlife refuge and reported Subjective fever 15 39 15 43 that deer were in the fields every day.
Contaminated alfalfa Hospitalized 18 47 18 49 plants, cattle manure, or deer feces could be picked up by the HUS b 4 11 0 0 thresher during harvesting and contaminate the seeds. No Headache ND 18 47 evidence was found for bacterial contamination at the seed processor. All isolates were was conducted. The median age of these patients was 12 phage type Thirty-three isolates were sensitive to all years, compared with 31 years for patients in the case-con- antimicrobial agents tested; one isolate from Virginia was trol study. Calculate the price of your order Type of paper needed:. Pages: words. You will get a personal manager and a discount. Academic level:. We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, at AM. Total price:. The price is based on these factors:.
The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. Abstract Alfalfa Medicago sativa L.