Personal Narrative: Greeting From Yuma

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Personal Narrative: Greeting From Yuma

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Natives The first natives in the area were Indians. They hunted deer,elks, beavers, and foxes for food. They also fished and dug clams and oysters out of the sandy shores. After they dug the shellfish out of the shore they wore the shells for their beauty and value. Because of the great value of them they were traded in far away places. Clatsop Indian Adventure Words 5 Pages.

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Wyatt was lucky during the few gun fights he took part in from his earliest job as an assistant police officer in Wichita to Tombstone, where he was briefly deputy U. Unlike his lawmen brothers Virgil and James, Wyatt was never wounded, although once his clothing and his saddle were shot through with bullet holes. Flood's biography as dictated to him by Wyatt Earp , Wyatt vividly recalled a presence that in several instances warned him away or urged him to take action. This happened when he was on the street, alone in his room at the Cosmopolitan Hotel, at Bob Hatch's Pool Hall, where he went moments before Morgan was assassinated, and again when he approached Iron Springs and surprised Curly Bill Brocius, killing him.

After the shootout in Tombstone, his pursuit and murder of those who attacked his brothers, and after leaving Arizona, Wyatt was often the target of negative newspaper stories that disparaged his and his brothers' reputation. His role in history has stimulated considerable ongoing scholarly and editorial debate. A large body of literature has been written about Wyatt Earp and his legacy, some of it highly fictionalized. Considerable portions of it are either full of admiration and flattery or hostile debunking.

Wyatt was repeatedly criticized in the media over the remainder of his life. His wife Josephine wrote, "The falsehoods that were printed in some of the newspapers about him and the unjust accusations against him hurt Wyatt more deeply than anything that ever happened to him during my life with him, with the exception of his mother's death and that of his father and brother, Warren. It described Behan as "an honest man, a good official, and possessed many of the attributes of a gentleman". Earp, on the other hand, "was head of band of desperadoes, a partner in stage robbers, and a friend of gamblers and professional killers Wyatt was the boss killer of the region. Former nemesis Johnny Behan continued to spread rumors about the Earps for the next 20 years.

On December 7, , he was quoted in a story in the Washington Post , reprinted by the San Francisco Call , describing the Earp's lawbreaking behavior in Tombstone. After referring to the Fitzimmons-Sharkey fight, the article quoted Behan. Between them and Earps rose a bitter feud over the division of the proceeds of the looting. The Earp boys believed they had failed to get a fair divide of the booty and swore vengeance. They caught their former allies in Tombstone unarmed and shot three of them dead while their hands were uplifted.

Warrants were issued for their arrest, and, summoning a posse, I went out to bring the Earps in. They were chased entirely out of the country and Tombstone knew them no more. After Earp left Alaska in , the New York Sun printed a story in that described a confrontation Earp had reportedly had with a short 5 feet 1. The story was reprinted as far away as New Zealand by the Otago Witness. Raines described the gunfight as an ambush. He said that he remembered the Earps shot the Cowboys and killed Ike Clanton when they actually killed his brother Billy before the Cowboys had a chance to surrender. He recalled that the Cowboys "were leading their horses out of the gate when they were confronted, almost from ambush, by four of the Earps, Virgil.

Wyatt, Morgan and Jim and by Doc Holliday. Virgil Earp, armed with a sawed off express shotgun, and accompanying his demand with profanity, yelled "Hands up! Tom McLowery [ sic ] showed his empty bands, and cried. Ike Clanton fell at the first fire, mortally wounded, but he rolled over and fired two shots from his pistol between his bent knees. During , Frederick R. Bechdolt published the book When the West Was Young , [] which included a story about Wyatt's time in Tombstone, but he mangled many basic facts.

He described the Earp-Clanton differences as the falling-out of partners in crime. It said that the Earps were allies of Frank Stilwell, who had informed on them, so they killed him, [] and that Earp had died in Colton, California. The author concocted a fictional description of the Earp's relationship with Sheriff Behan and the Cowboys:.

Trouble arose between them and Sheriff John Behan, who tried to 'clean up' the town. Trouble began when four cowboys refused to recognize the right of the Earp gang to rule the town. The Earps ordered the cowboys out of town and they were preparing to leave when they were waylaid and a gun battle followed during which Virgil Earp was shot in the leg, Morgan Earp in the shoulder and Ike Clanton was killed. The town was aroused and Frank Stilwell, who led the stage robberies, brought the trouble to a climax when he informed against his partners, because the Earps would not divide fairly. In a gun battle that followed, Stilwell killed Morgan Earp.

A few months later another stage was robbed, and the driver, 'Bud' Philpot, was killed. Josephine and Earps' friend and actor William Hart both wrote letters to the publisher. Josephine demanded that the error "must be corrected and printed in the same sensational manner" given to the correction as to the original article, which the paper published. At the time of his death, Earp may have been more well known for the controversy that engulfed him after the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey match in San Francisco than for the gunfight in Tombstone.

As Deputy United States Marshal, Earp had been sent from town to town to quell disturbances and establish peace. His only recorded visit to California in those days was his memorable trip to Colton, then known as the "toughest town untamed". Within a week Wyatt Earp had the town running like a clock, but at the cost of not a few lives of "prominent citizens". Earp could shoot with his two guns from all angles and instantly made his presence felt in Colton. Earp's modern-day reputation is that of the Old West's "toughest and deadliest gunman of his day". Author Walter Noble Burns visited Earp in September and asked him questions with the intent to write a book about Earp. Earp declined because he was already collaborating with John Flood.

Burns visited Tombstone and based on what he learned decided instead to focus his book on Doc Holliday. He pestered Earp for facts, and on March 27 the next year, Earp finally responded to Burns' repeated requests in an page letter outlining the basic facts from Earp's point of view. When their efforts to get the Flood manuscript published failed, the Earps decided to appeal to Burns, whose own book was near publication. But he was not interested. His book was about to be published, free of the constraints imposed by a collaboration with Earp. I should have been delighted six months ago to accept your offer but it is too late now.

My book has championed Mr. Earp's cause throughout and I believe will vindicate his reputation in Tombstone in a way that he will like. In late , Burns published Tombstone, An Iliad of the Southwest, a mesmerizing tale "of blood and thunder," that christened Earp as the "Lion of Tombstone". Something epic in him, fashioned in Homeric mold. In his way, a hero. Readers and reviewers found they had a difficult time discerning between "fact and fiction". Burns treated Earp as a mythical figure, a "larger-than-life hero whose many portrayals in film, television, and books often render fidelity to truth the first casualty".

Breakenridge was assisted by Western novelist William MacLeod Raine , who since had published more than 25 novels about Western history. The book was published in before Wyatt died. Corral gun fight stated that the Clanton and McLaury brothers were merely cowboys who had been unarmed and surrendered but the Earp brothers had shot them in cold blood. Earp complained about the book until his death in , and his wife continued in the same vein afterward. Edwin V. Burkholder, who specialized in stories about the Old West, published an article about Wyatt in in Argosy Magazine.

He called Wyatt Earp a coward and murderer, and manufactured evidence to support his allegations. Qualey", for the Western magazine Real West. His stores were filled with sensational claims about Wyatt Earp's villainy, and he made up fake letters to the editor from supposed "old-timers" to corroborate this story. Allie Earp was so upset by the way Waters distorted and manipulated her words that she threatened to shoot him. In it, Waters vociferously berated Wyatt:. Wyatt was an itinerant saloonkeeper, cardsharp, gunman, bigamist, church deacon, policeman, bunco artist, and a supreme confidence man. A lifelong exhibitionist ridiculed alike by members of his own family, neighbors, contemporaries, and the public press, he lived his last years in poverty, still vainly trying to find someone to publicize his life, and died two years before his fictitious biography recast him in the role of America's most famous frontier marshal.

Purportedly quoting Allie, he invented bitter public fights between Mattie and Wyatt, and told how Wyatt's affair with Sadie Marcus, "the slut of Tombstone," had humiliated Mattie. He condemned the Earp brothers' character and called them names. Waters used Allie Earp's anecdotes as a frame for adding a narrative and "building a case, essentially piling quote upon quote to prove that Wyatt Earp was a con man, thief, robber, and eventually murderer".

Reidhead, author of Travesty: Frank Waters Earp Agenda Exposed , spent nearly a decade searching for Water's original manuscript, researching him, his background, and his bias against the Earps. In doing so, the author discovered that the story Waters presented against the Earps was primarily fictitious. Because of his later reputation, few writers, even today, dare question Waters' motives. They also do not bother fact checking the Earp Brothers of Tombstone , which is so inaccurate it should be considered fiction, rather than fact.

Anti-Earp writers and researchers use Frank Waters' Earp Brothers of Tombstone , as their primary source for material that presents Wyatt Earp as something of a villainous monster, aided and abetted by his brothers who were almost brutes. Waters detested the Earps so badly that he presented a book that was terribly flawed, poorly edited, and brimming with prevarications. In his other work, Waters is poetic. In the Earp Brothers of Tombstone , he is little more than a tabloid hack, trying to slander someone he dislikes. His books were strongly anti-Earp and attacked Wyatt Earp's image as a hero. Bartholomew went about this by reciting snippets of accumulated anti-Earp facts, rumors, gossip, and innuendo.

Bartholomew's books started a trend of debunking Earp, and the academic community followed his lead, pursuing the image of Earp as a "fighting pimp". One inconsistency by Barra, pointed out by another reviewer, includes a description of the poker game the night before the shootout. He wrote a letter to John Hays Hammond on May 21, , telling him "notoriety had been the bane of my life. I detest it, and I never have put forth any effort to check the tales that have been published in which my brothers and I are supposed to have been the principal participants.

Not one of them is correct. He was tired of all the lies perpetuated about him and became determined to get his story accurately told. Earp did not trust the press and preferred to keep his mouth shut. The many negative, untruthful stories bothered Earp a great deal, and he finally decided to tell his own story. Scanland, the author of the LA Times article, and extract a written retraction from him, which he finally did in In , Earp began to collaborate on a biography with his friend and former mining engineer with John Flood to get his story told in a way that he approved. Lake wrote the book with Earp's input, [] but was only able to interview him eight times before Earp died, [] during which Earp sketched out the "barest facts" of his life.

Lake initially sought Earp out hoping to write a magazine article about him. Earp was also seeking a biographer at about the same time. Earp, who was 80, was concerned that his vantage point on the Tombstone story may be lost, and may have been financially motivated, as he had little income in his last years of life. During the interviews and in later correspondence, Josephine and Wyatt went to great lengths to keep her name out of Lake's book. Lake's creative biography portrays Earp as a "Western superhero", [] "gallant white knight" [] and entirely avoided mentioning Josephine Earp or Blaylock. A number of Hollywood movies have been directly and indirectly influenced by Lake's book and its depiction of Earp's role as a western lawman.

Corral in the public consciousness and Earp as a fearless lawman in the American Old West. The book "is now regarded more as fiction than fact", [] "an imaginative hoax, a fabrication mixed with just enough fact to give it credibility". Josephine Earp worked hard to create an image of Wyatt as a teetotaler , [] but as a saloon owner and gambler, he drank occasionally as well. When Flood and Lake wrote their biographies, Prohibition was in force.

Among the other facts Josephine wanted scrubbed from Earp's history, was that he liked a drink. She persuaded biographers Flood, Lake and Burns to write that Earp was a non-drinker. A good friend of Earp's, Charlie Welsh, was known to disappear for days at a time "to see property", the family euphemism for a drinking binge, and Earp was his regular partner. Lake described them as extra-long Colt Single Action Army revolvers with inch mm barrels. Buntline was supposed to have presented them to lawmen in thanks for their help with contributing "local color" to his western yarns. According to Lake, the revolver was equipped with a detachable metal shoulder stock. However, neither Tilghman nor Brown were lawmen then. Researchers have never found any record of such an order received by the Colt company, and Ned Buntline's alleged connections to Earp's have been largely discredited.

After the publication of Lake's book, various Colt revolvers with long 10" or 16" barrels were referred to as "Colt Buntlines". Colt re-introduced the revolvers in its second generation revolvers produced after Earp's reputation has been confused by inaccurate, conflicting, and false stories told about him by others, and by his own claims that cannot be corroborated. For example, in an interview with a reporter in Denver in , he denied that he had killed Johnny Ringo. In , he was interviewed by an agent of California historian Hubert H. Bancroft , and Earp claimed that he had killed "over a dozen stage robbers, murderers, and cattle thieves".

However, Earp included details that do not match what is known about Ringo's death. Earp repeated that claim to at least three other people. At the hearing following the Tombstone shootout, Earp said he had been marshal in Dodge City, a claim he repeated in an August 16, , interview that appeared in The San Francisco Examiner. But Earp had only been an assistant city marshal there. During an interview with his future biographer Stuart Lake during the late s, Earp said that he arrested notorious gunslinger Ben Thompson in Ellsworth , Kansas , on August 15, , when news accounts and Thompson's own contemporary account about the episode do not mention his presence. However he was not convicted of the last charge and was released. In the same interview, Earp claimed that George Hoyt had intended to kill him, although newspaper accounts from that time report differently.

Cowboy Charlie Siringo witnessed the incident and left a written account. Wyatt outlived his brothers, and due to the fame Wyatt gained from Lake's biography and later adaptations of it, he is often mistakenly viewed as the central character and hero of the gunfight at the O. Marshal and Tombstone City Marshal, actually held the legal authority in Tombstone the day of the shootout. Wyatt was only a temporary assistant marshal to his brother. Western historian and author John Boessenecker describes Earp:. He always lived on the outer fringe of respectable society, and his closest companions were gamblers and sporting men Wyatt never set down roots in any one place; when the money stopped coming in or his problems became too great, he would pull up stakes and move on to the next boomtown For his entire life was a gamble, an effort to make money without working hard for it, to succeed quickly without ever settling in for the long haul.

One of the most well known, and for many years respected, books about Wyatt Earp was the book I Married Wyatt Earp , originally credited as a factual memoir by Josephine Marcus Earp. In , writer Tony Ortega wrote a lengthy investigative article for the Phoenix New Times for which he interviewed Boyer. Boyer said that he was uninterested in what others thought of the accuracy of what he had written. I don't have to adhere to the kind of jacket that these people are putting on me. I am not a historian. I'm a storyteller.

Boyer's and the University Press' credibility were severely damaged. In the university referred all questions to university lawyers who investigated some of the allegations about Boyer's work. As a result, other works by Boyer were subsequently questioned. His book, Wyatt Earp's Tombstone Vendetta , published in , was according to Boyer based on an account written by a previously unknown Tombstone journalist that he named "Theodore Ten Eyck", but whose identity could not be independently verified. Boyer claimed that the manuscript was "clearly authentic" and that it contained "fascinating revelations if they are true and would make an ace movie". History professor William Urban also described "the questionable scholarship of Glenn Boyer, the dominant figure in Earpiana for the past several decades, who has apparently invented a manuscript and then cited it as a major source in his publications.

This does not surprise this reviewer, who has personal experience with Boyer's pretentious exaggeration of his acquaintance with Warren County records. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American gambler and frontier marshal — For other uses, see Wyatt Earp disambiguation. Monmouth, Illinois , U. Los Angeles, California , U. Urilla Sutherland. Sally Heckell. Celia Ann "Mattie" Blaylock. Josephine Sarah Marcus.

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