Ethical Issues: The Spanish Government V. Odyssey

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Ethical Issues: The Spanish Government V. Odyssey

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Is forgiveness what I'm hoping my high school English teacher will grant me after she discovers I started a piece of writing with a question-- despite repeatedly teaching me that starting a piece of writing with a question is lazy. Telling me, "You are a better writer than this! I believe that in a perfect world-- where the sun never stops shining and sparkles fall from the sky and puppies never die, forgiveness is when you somehow become okay with something someone has said or done to you. But by definition, to forgive is "[to] stop feeling angry or resentful toward someone for an offense, flaw, or mistake. For most of my life, I've held on to the picture-perfect idea that forgiveness means you are okay with the pain someone has caused you. It wasn't until my senior year of high school when I felt destroyed beyond repair where I found myself searching for what it meant to forgive someone.

I thought that's what you're supposed to do when someone wrongs you: Eventually, you forgive them and become magically okay with what they said or did. But the last thing I wanted to do was "forgive" someone who led me to have to dunk my face in ice water every night to stop my anxiety attacks. The last thing I wanted to do was "forgive" someone who led me to have to leave in the middle of class with tears staining my red cheeks. I had the wrong idea of what forgiveness is. Forgiveness does not mean you are okay with what someone has done to you. Forgiveness does not mean that what someone has said or done to you is somehow justifiable. The definition says forgiveness is when you stop feeling angry or resentful.

It doesn't say the pain stops. It doesn't say a certain action is okay. It says you stop feeling angry or resentful. Therefore, forgiveness is a choice. A hard one nonetheless, but it's a choice for you to make. When someone says or does something that hurts you or even destroys you, it means they weren't thinking of you. When they said the thing or did the act that caused you pain—they were never thinking about you and your heart-- your feelings. The great thing about forgiveness is that it comes to be about you, not them. When you forgive, you are showing yourself the care and love that was never thought of in the first place.

You are letting go of the hatred and resentment that built up in your chest because you know you deserve more than that. You are worthy of better. By choosing forgiveness, you are choosing yourself—putting yourself first. Hatred and resentment take up too much space in the body and soul, and how silly would it be to let another person control you to such an extent? After they've already hurt you as they have? You can choose forgiveness and still cry an ugly cry. You can choose forgiveness and still be disapproving of what was said or done. You can choose forgiveness and still hurt. You can choose forgiveness and still never speak to the person again.

Forgiveness isn't approval - instead, it's the love that was never shown to you finally being shown to you, by you—for you. Forgiveness isn't "It's okay," rather it's "I will be okay. Not every languages is difficult to learn, We mention top 5 languages that are difficult to learn for English speakers and for all the other language speakers. Many different cultures and languages are exposed to adults. Many of us feel frustrated when we are unable to communicate with someone because of language barriers. Parents who do not speak a second language themselves often find it stressful to introduce their children to a new language. Nowadays, learning a language is incredibly easy with all the online resources available. Choosing which one to devote your time to is the hard part.

Learning a more difficult language can be very rewarding, especially for those who are up to the challenge! Below are the 5 hardest languages in the world to learn. Various factors make Mandarin Chinese challenging to learn. In the first and foremost place, it is very difficult for English speakers as well as everyone else used to the Latin alphabet. People studying Mandarin have to memorize thousands of characters, unlike any other language based on Latin.

This is in addition to the usual challenges that come with learning any language. Writing Chinese is not the only challenge. It is also very hard to speak due to the nature of the tones in the language. It is difficult to learn and has different written characters. The Chinese language, whose most common dialect has four tones, has four different ways of pronounced words; each way has its meaning. For English speakers, Arabic is the next most difficult language to learn, which is also one of the five most commonly spoken languages in the world.

It is also in the top 10 hardest languages to learn. Starting with the Arabic language, it can be classified by regions or countries that speak it, which differ radically from one another. Choosing a dialect to learn is the easiest part, but it still leaves a lot of work to be done. Another language with an unconventional alphabet is Arabic. English speakers may not have a difficult time understanding its 28 script letters, but it's still a challenge to learn a new writing system. For beginners, the absence of most vowels in words makes reading and writing in Arabic particularly challenging. It makes the whole thing very complicated. As well as Arabic being written from left to right instead of right to left, it requires some getting used to.

Additionally, spoken Arabic has certain characteristics that make learning it difficult. The sounds used in English are unfamiliar to speakers of other languages or are not present in other languages. For example, the sounds made in your throat are not familiar to English speakers. There are also grammatical challenges, especially since verbs usually appear first before a subject, and you also need to learn dual forms of some words.

The Cyrillic alphabet, used in Russian, is a mixture of letters we are familiar with and those we are not. Some Cyrillic letters look like Latin letters but sound different. Cyrillic letters make a "V" sound, for instance. Though it is not quite as hard to learn as Polish, Russian is pretty close to it. It has six case forms compared to Polish's seven. The Russians also remove the verb "to be" from sentences in the present tense, so beginners may have difficulty building sentences from scratch. It is not always easy to spell or pronounce "I am a student" in Russian because it uses many consonants clustered together, which makes it hard to spell and pronounce.

However, it may be worthwhile to learn Russian regardless of its difficulty. Despite its popularity as a language of business and leisure, it is extremely politically and culturally relevant. According to the Turkish alphabet, words are adjudicated with prefixes and suffixes to indicate their meaning and direction, instead of using separate prepositions. Another feature of Turkish is the concept of vowel harmony, where vowels are changed or endings with vowels are added to make a word flow better. One of the hardest languages to learning contains numerous unfamiliar vocabulary words, most of them of Arabic origin.

Turkish learners have the benefit of relatively few exceptions to grammar rules compared to other languages, a straightforward spelling system, and an opportunity to learn an agglutinative language. It gets easier from this point on but is still quite challenging to learn the hardest languages. Fifth place goes to Polish. The first half of the book contains an extended rebuttal of what Camus took to be existentialist philosophy in the works of Kierkegaard, Shestov, Heidegger, and Jaspers. Simone de Beauvoir , an important existentialist who spent much of her life as Sartre's partner, wrote about feminist and existentialist ethics in her works, including The Second Sex and The Ethics of Ambiguity. Although often overlooked due to her relationship with Sartre, [83] de Beauvoir integrated existentialism with other forms of thinking such as feminism, unheard of at the time, resulting in alienation from fellow writers such as Camus.

Paul Tillich , an important existentialist theologian following Kierkegaard and Karl Barth , applied existentialist concepts to Christian theology , and helped introduce existential theology to the general public. His seminal work The Courage to Be follows Kierkegaard's analysis of anxiety and life's absurdity, but puts forward the thesis that modern humans must, via God, achieve selfhood in spite of life's absurdity.

Rudolf Bultmann used Kierkegaard's and Heidegger's philosophy of existence to demythologize Christianity by interpreting Christian mythical concepts into existentialist concepts. Maurice Merleau-Ponty , an existential phenomenologist , was for a time a companion of Sartre. Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception was recognized as a major statement of French existentialism. However, in later years they were to disagree irreparably, dividing many existentialists such as de Beauvoir, [61] who sided with Sartre. Colin Wilson , an English writer, published his study The Outsider in , initially to critical acclaim.

In this book and others e. Introduction to the New Existentialism , he attempted to reinvigorate what he perceived as a pessimistic philosophy and bring it to a wider audience. He was not, however, academically trained, and his work was attacked by professional philosophers for lack of rigor and critical standards. Stanley Kubrick 's anti-war film Paths of Glory "illustrates, and even illuminates The film examines existentialist ethics, such as the issue of whether objectivity is possible and the "problem of authenticity ".

Neon Genesis Evangelion is a Japanese science fiction animation series created by the anime studio Gainax and was both directed and written by Hideaki Anno. This, in turn, leads him to a better understanding of humanity. Existential perspectives are also found in modern literature to varying degrees, especially since the s. Jean-Paul Sartre's novel Nausea [92] was "steeped in Existential ideas", and is considered an accessible way of grasping his philosophical stance. Eliot , Hermann Hesse , Luigi Pirandello , [39] [40] [42] [94] [95] [96] Ralph Ellison , [97] [98] [99] [] and Jack Kerouac , composed literature or poetry that contained, to varying degrees, elements of existential or proto-existential thought. The philosophy's influence even reached pulp literature shortly after the turn of the 20th century, as seen in the existential disparity witnessed in Man's lack of control of his fate in the works of H.

Dick , Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut and Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk all distort the line between reality and appearance while simultaneously espousing existential themes. Sartre wrote No Exit in , an existentialist play originally published in French as Huis Clos meaning In Camera or "behind closed doors" , which is the source of the popular quote, "Hell is other people. The play begins with a Valet leading a man into a room that the audience soon realizes is in hell. Eventually he is joined by two women.

After their entry, the Valet leaves and the door is shut and locked. All three expect to be tortured, but no torturer arrives. Instead, they realize they are there to torture each other, which they do effectively by probing each other's sins, desires, and unpleasant memories. Existentialist themes are displayed in the Theatre of the Absurd , notably in Samuel Beckett 's Waiting for Godot , in which two men divert themselves while they wait expectantly for someone or something named Godot who never arrives. They claim Godot is an acquaintance, but in fact, hardly know him, admitting they would not recognize him if they saw him. Samuel Beckett, once asked who or what Godot is, replied, "If I knew, I would have said so in the play.

The play examines questions such as death, the meaning of human existence and the place of God in human existence. Comparisons have also been drawn to Samuel Beckett 's Waiting For Godot , for the presence of two central characters who appear almost as two halves of a single character. Many plot features are similar as well: the characters pass time by playing Questions , impersonating other characters, and interrupting each other or remaining silent for long periods of time.

The two characters are portrayed as two clowns or fools in a world beyond their understanding. They stumble through philosophical arguments while not realizing the implications, and muse on the irrationality and randomness of the world. Jean Anouilh 's Antigone also presents arguments founded on existentialist ideas. Produced under Nazi censorship, the play is purposefully ambiguous with regards to the rejection of authority represented by Antigone and the acceptance of it represented by Creon. The parallels to the French Resistance and the Nazi occupation have been drawn. Antigone rejects life as desperately meaningless but without affirmatively choosing a noble death. The crux of the play is the lengthy dialogue concerning the nature of power, fate, and choice, during which Antigone says that she is, " Esslin noted that many of these playwrights demonstrated the philosophy better than did the plays by Sartre and Camus.

Though most of such playwrights, subsequently labeled "Absurdist" based on Esslin's book , denied affiliations with existentialism and were often staunchly anti-philosophical for example Ionesco often claimed he identified more with 'Pataphysics or with Surrealism than with existentialism , the playwrights are often linked to existentialism based on Esslin's observation. A major offshoot of existentialism as a philosophy is existentialist psychology and psychoanalysis, which first crystallized in the work of Otto Rank , Freud's closest associate for 20 years.

A later figure was Viktor Frankl , who briefly met Freud as a young man. The existentialists would also influence social psychology , antipositivist micro- sociology , symbolic interactionism , and post-structuralism , with the work of thinkers such as Georg Simmel [] and Michel Foucault. Foucault was a great reader of Kierkegaard even though he almost never refers this author, who nonetheless had for him an importance as secret as it was decisive. An early contributor to existentialist psychology in the United States was Rollo May , who was strongly influenced by Kierkegaard and Otto Rank.

One of the most prolific writers on techniques and theory of existentialist psychology in the USA is Irvin D. Yalom states that. Aside from their reaction against Freud's mechanistic, deterministic model of the mind and their assumption of a phenomenological approach in therapy, the existentialist analysts have little in common and have never been regarded as a cohesive ideological school. Gebsattel, Roland Kuhn, G. Caruso, F. Buytendijk, G. Bally, and Victor Frankl—were almost entirely unknown to the American psychotherapeutic community until Rollo May's highly influential book Existence —and especially his introductory essay—introduced their work into this country.

A more recent contributor to the development of a European version of existentialist psychotherapy is the British-based Emmy van Deurzen. Anxiety's importance in existentialism makes it a popular topic in psychotherapy. Therapists often offer existentialist philosophy as an explanation for anxiety. The assertion is that anxiety is manifested of an individual's complete freedom to decide, and complete responsibility for the outcome of such decisions. Psychotherapists using an existentialist approach believe that a patient can harness his anxiety and use it constructively.

Instead of suppressing anxiety, patients are advised to use it as grounds for change. By embracing anxiety as inevitable, a person can use it to achieve his full potential in life. Humanistic psychology also had major impetus from existentialist psychology and shares many of the fundamental tenets. Terror management theory , based on the writings of Ernest Becker and Otto Rank , is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology.

It looks at what researchers claim are implicit emotional reactions of people confronted with the knowledge that they will eventually die. Also, Gerd B. Achenbach has refreshed the Socratic tradition with his own blend of philosophical counseling. Walter Kaufmann criticized 'the profoundly unsound methods and the dangerous contempt for reason that have been so prominent in existentialism. Ayer , assert that existentialists are often confused about the verb "to be" in their analyses of "being". Wilson has stated in his book The Angry Years that existentialism has created many of its own difficulties: "we can see how this question of freedom of the will has been vitiated by post-romantic philosophy, with its inbuilt tendency to laziness and boredom , we can also see how it came about that existentialism found itself in a hole of its own digging, and how the philosophical developments since then have amounted to walking in circles round that hole".

Many critics argue Sartre's philosophy is contradictory. Specifically, they argue that Sartre makes metaphysical arguments despite his claiming that his philosophical views ignore metaphysics. Herbert Marcuse criticized Being and Nothingness for projecting anxiety and meaninglessness onto the nature of existence itself: "Insofar as Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine, it remains an idealistic doctrine: it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. Existentialism thus becomes part of the very ideology which it attacks, and its radicalism is illusory". Existentialism says existence precedes essence.

In this statement he is taking existentia and essentia according to their metaphysical meaning, which, from Plato's time on, has said that essentia precedes existentia. Sartre reverses this statement. But the reversal of a metaphysical statement remains a metaphysical statement. With it, he stays with metaphysics, in oblivion of the truth of Being. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical system. For the logical sense of the term, see Existential quantification. For other uses, see Existence disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Essentialism. Main article: Existence precedes essence. Main article: Absurdism. Main article: Facticity. This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Authenticity. Main article: Other philosophy.

Main article: Angst. Main article: Despair. See also: Existential crisis. See also: Positivism and Rationalism. See also: Atheistic existentialism , Christian existentialism , and Jewish existentialism. See also: Existential nihilism. See also: Martin Heidegger. Main article: Existential therapy. Abandonment existentialism Disenchantment Existential phenomenology Existential risk Existential therapy Existentiell List of existentialists Meaning existential Meaning-making Nihilism Self Self-reflection. Oxford Dictionaries.

Retrieved 2 March Oxford English Dictionary Online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or participating institution membership required. Nietzsche: A Biographical Introduction. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York: Penguin. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. Introduction to Modern Existentialism. New York: Grove Press.

Existentialism: From Dostoyevesky to Sartre. New York: Meridian. Existentialism - A Very Short Introduction. ISBN Basic Writings of Existentialism. Modern Library. In Edward N. Zalta ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer Edition. Kierkegaard's attack upon "Christendom". Existentialism: basic writings. Hackett Publishing. The Cambridge Companion to Existentialism , Cambridge, , p. JSTOR London: Penguin Classics. Retrieved 12 January From Plato to Derrida. Rethinking Existentialism.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 16 November The Sartre Dictionary. Edited by David Farrell Krell Revised and expanded ed. OCLC Existentialism: A Beginner's Guide. Oxford: One World. The A to Z of Existentialism. Luigi Pirandello in the Theatre. Retrieved 26 March Understanding Existentialism: Teach Yourself. Pirandello and the Crisis of Modern Consciousness. University of Illinois Press. Living Masks: The Achievement of Pirandello. University of Toronto Press.

Retrieved Psychoanalytic Review. PMID Being and Nothingness. Translated by Hazel E. New York: Washington Square Press. Encyclopedia Britannica. Works of Love. New York, N. Embry—Riddle University. Retrieved November 18, Mayfield Publishing, , pp. Existentialism and its relevance to the contemporary system of education in India : existentialism and present educational scenario. I and Thou. Walter Kaufmann. Someone who is "pro-life" believes that the government has an obligation to preserve all human life, regardless of intent, viability, or quality-of-life concerns. A comprehensive pro-life ethic, such as that proposed by the Roman Catholic Church, prohibits:.

In cases where the pro-life ethic conflicts with personal autonomy, as in abortion and assisted suicide, it's considered conservative. In cases where the pro-life ethic conflicts with government policy, as in the death penalty and war, it's said to be liberal. People who are " pro-choice " believe that individuals have unlimited autonomy with respect to their own reproductive systems, as long as they don't breach the autonomy of others. A comprehensive pro-choice position asserts that the following must remain legal:. Under the Partial Birth Abortion Ban passed by Congress and signed into law in , abortion became illegal under most circumstances in the second trimester of pregnancy, even if the mother's health is in danger.

Individual states have their own laws, some banning abortion after 20 weeks and most restricting late-term abortions. The pro-choice position is perceived as "pro-abortion" to some in the U. The purpose of the pro-choice movement is to ensure that all choices remain legal. The pro-life and pro-choice movements primarily come into conflict on the issue of abortion. The pro-life movement argues that even a nonviable, undeveloped human life is sacred and must be protected by the government.

Abortion should be prohibited, according to this model, and not practiced on an illegal basis either. The pro-choice movement argues that the government should not prevent an individual from terminating a pregnancy before the point of viability when the fetus can't live outside the womb. The pro-life and pro-choice movements overlap to an extent in that they share the goal of reducing the number of abortions. However, they differ with respect to degree and methodology. Politicians on both sides of the abortion debate only sometimes reference the religious nature of the conflict. If one believes that an immortal soul is created at the moment of conception and that "personhood" is determined by the presence of that soul, then there is effectively no difference between terminating a week-old pregnancy or killing a living, breathing person.

Some members of the anti-abortion movement have acknowledged while maintaining that all life is sacred that a difference exists between a fetus and a fully-formed human being. The U. Some theological traditions teach that the soul is implanted at quickening when the fetus begins to move rather than at conception. Other theological traditions teach that the soul is born at birth, while some assert that the soul doesn't exist until well after birth.

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