Low Avalanche Danger Analysis

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Low Avalanche Danger Analysis

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5 Tips for Staying Safe in Avalanche Terrain - Mike Austin

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The lack of hard data about space debris prompted a series of studies to better characterize the LEO environment. Some objects typically, US military spacecraft were found to be omitted from the NORAD list, and others were not included because they were considered unimportant. The list could not easily account for objects under 20 cm 8 in in size—in particular, debris from exploding rocket stages and several s anti-satellite tests. Each study indicated that the debris flux was higher than expected and debris was the primary source of micrometeoroids and orbital debris collisions in space. LEO already demonstrated the Kessler syndrome.

In , Kessler found that 42 percent of cataloged debris was the result of 19 events, primarily explosions of spent rocket stages especially US Delta rockets. In , this finding resulted in establishment of the NASA Orbital Debris Program after a briefing to NASA senior management, overturning the previously held belief that most unknown debris was from old ASAT tests, not from US upper stage rocket explosions that could seemingly be easily managed by depleting the unused fuel from the upper stage Delta rocket following the payload injection. Beginning in , when it was discovered that other international agencies were possibly experiencing the same type of problem, NASA expanded its program to include international agencies, the first being the European Space Agency.

During the s, the US Air Force USAF conducted an experimental program to determine what would happen if debris collided with satellites or other debris. The study demonstrated that the process differed from micrometeoroid collisions, with large chunks of debris created which would become collision threats. In , Kessler published "Collisional cascading: The limits of population growth in low Earth orbit" [15] with the best data then available. Citing the USAF conclusions about creation of debris, he wrote that although almost all debris objects such as paint flecks were lightweight, most of its mass was in debris about 1 kg 2 lb 3 oz or heavier. This mass could destroy a spacecraft on impact, creating more debris in the critical-mass area. In such a breakup, numerous fragments larger than 1 kg would be created.

Kessler's analysis divided the problem into three parts. With a low-enough density, the addition of debris by impacts is slower than their decay rate and the problem is not significant. Beyond that is a critical density, where additional debris leads to additional collisions. At densities beyond this critical mass production exceeds decay, leading to a cascading chain reaction reducing the orbiting population to small objects several centimeters in size and increasing the hazard of space activity. Aggressive space activities without adequate safeguards could significantly shorten the time between collisions and produce an intolerable hazard to future spacecraft. Some of the most environmentally dangerous activities in space include large constellations such as those initially proposed by the Strategic Defense Initiative in the mids, large structures such as those considered in the lates for building solar power stations in Earth orbit, and anti-satellite warfare using systems tested by the USSR, the US, and China over the past 30 years.

Such aggressive activities could set up a situation where a single satellite failure could lead to cascading failures of many satellites in a period much shorter than years. Every satellite, space probe , and crewed mission has the potential to produce space debris. The theoretical cascading Kessler syndrome becomes more likely as satellites in orbit increase in number. As of [update] , there were about 2, commercial and government satellites orbiting the earth. The most commonly used orbits for both manned and unmanned space vehicles are low Earth orbits , which cover an altitude range low enough [ specify ] for residual atmospheric drag to be sufficient to help keep the zone clear.

Orbital decay is much slower at altitudes where atmospheric drag is insignificant. Slight atmospheric drag , lunar perturbation , and solar wind drag can gradually bring debris down to lower altitudes where fragments finally re-enter, but this process can take millennia at very high altitudes. The Kessler syndrome is troublesome because of the domino effect and feedback runaway wherein impacts between objects of sizable mass spall off debris from the force of the collision. The fragments can then hit other objects, producing even more space debris: if a large enough collision or explosion were to occur, such as between a space station and a defunct satellite, or as the result of hostile actions in space, then the resulting debris cascade could make prospects for long-term viability of satellites in particular low Earth orbits extremely low.

The catastrophic scenarios predict an increase in the number of collisions per year, as opposed to a physically impassable barrier to space exploration that occurs in higher orbits. Designers of a new vehicle or satellite are frequently required by the ITU [22] to demonstrate that it can be safely disposed of at the end of its life, for example by use of a controlled atmospheric reentry system or a boost into a graveyard orbit.

A proposed energy-efficient means of deorbiting a spacecraft from MEO is to shift it to an orbit in an unstable resonance with the Sun or Moon that speeds up orbital decay. The Envisat satellite is a large, inactive satellite with a mass of 8, kg 18, lb that drifts at km mi , an altitude where the debris environment is the greatest—two catalogued objects can be expected to pass within about m ft of Envisat every year [28] —and likely to increase. Don Kessler predicted in that it could easily become a major debris contributor from a collision during the next years that it will remain in orbit.

SpaceX 's Starlink program raises concern among many experts about significantly worsening the possibility of Kessler Syndrome due to the large number of satellites the program aims to place in LEO, as the program's goal will more than double the satellites currently in LEO. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theoretical runaway satellite collision cascade that could render parts of Earth orbit unusable.

Main article: Space debris. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May War portal Spaceflight portal Technology portal. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Atlantic. Retrieved — via TheAtlantic. They wait until the fourth quarter to show a pulse offensively and semi-bow up defensively.

And they paid the price Sunday for their sleep-walking ways. It may happen once or twice when a team finds lightning in the halftime locker room to pull a victory rabbit out of their hat. Part of that is based on attrition. The primary problem is not following their stated modus operandi. Against inferior teams and young quarterbacks, that worked — only two non-garbage time touchdowns allowed and a sap-the-clock offense during a start. It gained yards and averaged 4. The other thing Pittsburgh did well was stretch the field with the arm of embattled quarterback Ben Roethlisberger. A yard touchdown to Diontae Johnson to open the scoring and a yard completion to Chase Claypool set up another score.

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