Selyes Stress Theory
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general adaptation syndrome model
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Although he did not recognize all of the many aspects of glucocorticoids , Selye was aware of their role in the stress response. Charlotte Gerson  considers him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the first time in Although he received a total of 17 nominations in his career, he never won the prize.
Selye died on October 16, in Montreal, Quebec , Canada. He often returned to visit Hungary, giving lectures as well as interviews in Hungarian television programs. He conducted a lecture in at the Hungarian Scientific Academy in Hungarian and observers noted that he had no accent, despite spending many years abroad. Selye's mother was killed by gunfire during Hungary's anti-Communist revolt of Selye's interest in stress began when he was in medical school; he had observed that patients with various chronic illnesses like tuberculosis and cancer appeared to display a common set of symptoms that he attributed to what is now commonly called stress.
After completing his medical degree and a doctorate degree in organic chemistry at the German University of Prague, he received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship to study at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore and later moved to the Department of Biochemistry at McGill University in Montreal where he studied under the sponsorship of James Bertram Collip. Rats exposed to cold, drugs, or surgical injury exhibited a common pattern of responses to these stressors.
A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event seen as causing stress to an organism. Selye initially circa s called this the " general adaptation syndrome " at the time it was also called "Selye's syndrome" , but he later rebaptized it with the simpler term " stress response ". According to Selye the general adaptation syndrome is triphasic, involving an initial alarm phase followed by a stage of resistance or adaptation and, finally, a stage of exhaustion and death these phases were established largely on the basis of glandular states.
His last inspiration for general adaptation syndrome came from an experiment in which he injected mice with extracts of various organs. He at first believed he had discovered a new hormone, but was proved wrong when every irritating substance he injected produced the same symptoms swelling of the adrenal cortex , atrophy of the thymus , gastric and duodenal ulcers.
He later coined the term " stress ", which has been accepted into the lexicon of most other languages. Selye argued that stress differs from other physical responses in that it is identical whether the provoking impulse is positive or negative. He called negative stress " distress " and positive stress " eustress ". These reactions are somatic, functional and organic. Although it should be noted that most of the time, the body responds harmoniously to environmental stimuli and without negative consequences : This is what we call good stress.
The stress would be a normal physiological process of stimulation, activation and response of the organism. For Selye, most of the physical or mental effort that a person puts in to adapt to the demands of life, infections and other stressors, causes changes in the body. These changes occur in the first two phases of the general adaptation syndrome alarm phase and resistance phase. The third phase would be exhaustion , And only appears when the body tries to adapt to too many changes or sources of stress, or when these persist over time.
In this way, they prevent us from recognizing which current agents are causing this stress. These factors influence our response physical, psychological and biological ; they condition and determine it. At the end of a very productive life in experimental medicine, Selye recognized that under both unpleasant and demanding stressors as well as positive, rewarding stimuli adrenal cortex releases the same glucocorticoids and only certain brain structures may distinguish the stimuli under distress and eustress - terms he introduced in , that also contained his last definition of stress: the nonspecific response of the body on any demand on it. After brief description of the history of stress research, the rest of this review is focused on one element of stress triad, i.
Following a short description of acute gastroprotection, discovered by one of Selye's students, we discuss new molecular mediators of gastroduodenal ulceration like dopamine and new drugs that either only heal very potently, on molar basis or prevent and heal ulcers like sucralfate derivatives and the relatively new peptide BPC