Similarities Between Human Nature In And Then There Were None And Saw

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Similarities Between Human Nature In And Then There Were None And Saw

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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. White matter structural connections are likely to support flow of functional activation or functional connectivity. While the relationship between structural and functional connectivity profiles, here called SC-FC coupling, has been studied on a whole-brain, global level, few studies have investigated this relationship at a regional scale. We show that regional SC-FC coupling strength varies widely across brain regions, but was strongest in highly structurally connected visual and subcortical areas. We also show interindividual regional differences based on age, sex and composite cognitive scores, and that SC-FC coupling was highly heritable within certain networks.

These results suggest regional structure-function coupling is an idiosyncratic feature of brain organisation that may be influenced by genetic factors. The question of how anatomy and physiology are related is one of the fundamental questions in biology, particularly in neuroscience where studies of form and function have led to fundamental discoveries. In the last few decades, the invention of MRI has enabled in vivo investigation of whole-brain, anatomical white matter and physiological functional co-activation brain networks in human populations. Recent work has focused on implementing computational models, including neural mass models, network diffusion models, graph theoretical or statistical approaches, that formalize the global relationship between SC and FC in both healthy and disordered populations 6 , 7 , 8 , 9.

Some of the main goals in joint structure—function connectome modeling are to understand how neural populations communicate via the SC backbone 7 , how functional activation spreads through the structural connectome 8 , to increase the accuracy of noisy connectivity measurements, to identify function-specific subnetworks 10 , to predict one modality from the other 1 or to identify multi-modal mechanisms of recovery after injury 11 , While useful, these modeling approaches are global in nature and ignore the regional variability in the structure—function relationship that, to date, has not been adequately quantified in adult populations.

Recent publications mapping connectome properties to cognitive abilities have focused on using either FC or SC alone, or concatenating both together to reveal brain-behavior relationships 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , Some recent studies have identified relationships between global, whole-brain SC-FC correlations and cognitive abilities or states of awareness. One such paper showed that stronger global SC-FC correlations were related to worse cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment Another study showed disorders of consciousness patients with fewer signs of consciousness had longer dwell times in dynamic FC states that were most similar to SC It has also been shown that SC-FC similarity decreases with increasing awareness levels in anesthetized monkeys 20 and, similarly, decreases from deep sleep to wakefulness in humans In contrast, however, a recent study showed increased cognitive flexibility was associated with increased alignment of FC and SC Therefore, how SC—FC coupling relates to various cognitive functions, awareness or other brain states may vary with the behavioral measure and population in question.

Even fewer studies have explored how the strength of the relationship between SC and FC may vary with age and sex. Furthermore, they showed that stronger SC—FC coupling in rostro-lateral prefrontal cortex specifically was associated with development-related increases in executive function. Another of regional SC—FC coupling analyzed data from a group of around young adults and showed that, overall, regional SC—FC coupling was stronger in females than in males and that there were sex-specific correlations of SC—FC coupling with cognitive scores Very few studies explore heritability of SC networks; however, some recent preliminary work investigated the relationships between gene co-expression, single nucleitide polymorphisms SNPs , FC, and SC in a developmental cohort However, none of these studies have investigated the heritability of regional SC—FC coupling.

These studies of global, whole-brain SC-FC correlations, while informative, largely ignore regional variability of SC—FC coupling that may provide a more detailed picture of how anatomy and physiology vary with age, sex, genetics and cognitive abilities. There are only two studies to date investigating regional SC—FC coupling. The first used task-based FC in an adolescent population, focused on the cortex and did not assess heritability or sex differences 24 while the second used a data from a moderately sized sample of young adults, did not consider the cerebellum and did not investigate the heritability of SC—FC coupling In this work, we quantify the cortical, subcortical and cerebellar topography of SC—FC coupling at rest in a group of young adults, verify its reproducibility and quantify its association with age, sex and cognition.

Moreover, due to the nature of the HCP data, we were also able to assess the patterns of heritability of regional SC—FC coupling using kinship data. We then map the regional relationships between whole-brain SC—FC coupling and age, sex and cognition. Finally, we demonstrate the heritability of whole-brain SC—FC coupling. Our data is comprised of MRI, demographic, cognitive and familial relationship data from a group of young and healthy adults, curated by the Human Connectome Project 32 HCP. A fine-grained atlas CC 33 was used to partition the brain into spatially contiguous, functionally defined cortical and subcortical regions. FC was calculated via Pearson correlation of the regional time series.

SC matrices were constructed using anatomically constrained probabilistic tractography; entries in the SC matrices were then a sum of the global filtering weights SIFT2 of streamlines connecting pairs of regions, divided by the sum of the volumes of the two regions. We chose to use Spearman-rank correlation as it is straightforward to interpret, non-parametric entries in SC are not Gaussian , and, furthermore, enables direct comparison of our results to previous work 24 , To assess the association between whole-brain SC—FC coupling and between and within-network coupling, we separately calculated, for each region, its between and within-network SC—FC coupling.

The CC atlas was used to parcellate the gray matter into cortical and subcortical brain regions SC matrices were constructed based on probabilistic tractography aimed at reconstructing white-matter pathways. FC matrices, representing similarity of functional activation over time, were computed by correlating average BOLD time series from the defined region pairs. The result is a vector of regional SC—FC coupling, of length , for each individual. This is likely due to the much larger number of between-network region-pairs than within-network region-pairs in the whole-brain SC—FC coupling calculations.

Visual and subcortical networks have higher SC—FC coupling than other networks while limbic and default mode areas have weaker SC—FC coupling than other networks. Next, we tested the reliability and reproducibility of SC—FC coupling by examining its consistency within individuals over time and across different populations of individuals. To test for consistency over time within the same individuals, we used data from a subset of 41 subjects who had a second MRI 6 months after the first. Furthermore, we examined out-of-sample, across population reliability in SC—FC coupling using a subset of unrelated HCP subjects age, Significant positive associations with age were found in bilateral medial orbito-frontal regions, which belong to default mode network.

Significantly negative associations with age were found in the cerebellum see Fig. Males generally had higher SC—FC coupling than females, with right orbito-frontal gyrus showing largest differences; females had higher SC—FC coupling in right hippocampus Fig. Higher composite cognition scores were related to decreased SC—FC coupling in bilateral middle cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area and increased SC—FC coupling in right insula Fig. There were a mix of positive and negative associations found between SC—FC coupling and in-scanner head motion see Supplementary Fig. Next, we assessed the heritability of SC—FC coupling using a recently developed modeling approach that considers the level of measurement error of the imaging biomarker in question Specifically, a linear mixed effect LME model was designed to independently estimate the inter- and intra-subject variation representing the unstable, transient component and measurement error of the total phenotype variability.

Heritability was defined as the proportion of inter-subject variation attributable to genetics. In addition to age, sex and handedness, we included SC and FC node strength l 1 norm of each row as fixed-effect covariates in the model. The variance explained by each component genetic effect, common environmental effect, unique environmental effect and intra-subject measurement error in the heritability models of SC—FC coupling, FC and SC node strength are shown in Supplementary Figs. We performed several sensitivity analyses to verify the robustness of the SC—FC coupling results to choices in data processing, atlas definition and method of calculating SC—FC coupling.

Biases in tractography algorithms exist, including the effect of distance between regions, which we adjusted for somewhat using a global filtering approach One noticeable difference between the two coupling calculations was weaker subcortical SC—FC coupling when distance was considered in the calculation. We hypothesize this is due to the fact that subcortical structures are further from the majority of cortical regions but also highly connected to all of them so covarying for distance has a greater impact on its coupling measures. It is also known that tractography algorithms underestimate cross-hemisphere connections; SC—FC coupling within a single hemisphere was very similar to whole-brain SC—FC coupling Supplementary Fig.

In this paper, we quantified the strength of coupling between the structural and functional connectivity profiles of cortical, subcortical and cerebellar brain regions in a large sample of healthy young adults. We demonstrate that SC—FC coupling is strongest in visual and subcortical areas, weakest in limbic and default mode network regions and is consistent across time and different sample populations.

Furthermore, we show SC—FC coupling has a positive association with age in bilateral orbito-frontal regions and a negative association with age in the cerebellum, is generally stronger in males, and that stronger SC—FC coupling in the right insula and weaker coupling in bilateral middle cingulate and supplementary motor areas are related to higher total composite cognition scores. The ordering of cortical regions into anatomical hierarchies, wherein primary sensory regions are at the bottom and higher-order association areas are at the top, provides a way to organize brain regions. Anatomical hierarchies defined by myelination and white-matter connectivity patterns have been shown to reflect functional and transcriptome specialization 36 , 37 , Lower-order regions of the visual network that have high-cortical myelination and stronger SC node degree tended to have functional activation patterns strongly aligned to their white-matter connectivity profiles.

Higher-order association areas with lower myelination and weaker SC node degree tend to have complex, dynamic functional profiles that are less anchored by their structural connectivity profiles. Finally, whole-brain SC—FC coupling appeared to be more associated with between-network coupling than within-network coupling. This is likely because of the larger overlap in regions included in the between-network calculation. Thus, the within and between-network coupling is biased and likely noisy for networks that have a smaller number of regions than ones with a larger number of regions, which complicates comparison. Functional activation flows not only through direct SC but also indirect, multi-synaptic white-matter connections, which likely contributes to divergence of SC and FC to varying degrees Statistical, communication, biophysical and machine learning models have been applied to better align FC and SC 3 , 7 , 8 , In particular, that work showed FC calculated using partial correlation precision , which aims to isolate direct and remove the effect of indirect functional connections, had stronger correlations with SC than standard FC calculated using full Pearson correlation.

However, this observation was based on using Pearson correlation to assess global similarity of the upper triangular portions of the SC and FC matrices, which may not be an appropriate measure as SC is non-Gaussian. When using the more statistically appropriate Spearman correlation to assess the similarity of SC and FC, precision-based FC gives lower values about half the magnitude compared to correlation-based FC see Supplementary Fig. We hypothesize this reduction in coupling may be driven by non-overlapping sparsity patterns that exist in both the SC and the precision-based FC. Despite the limited age range of our sample 22—37 years we still observed a few associations between SC—FC coupling and age, with stronger medial orbito-frontal SC—FC coupling and weaker cerebellar coupling being related to increased age.

Processes like synaptic pruning, functional diversification and myelination that may impact SC—FC coupling, and are classically associated with adolescent populations, are still occurring in young adults through at least the mids. Orbito-frontal regions of the prefrontal cortex, particularly important in impulse control, are among the last regions in the brain to fully develop 43 , Interestingly, Baum et al. Their age-related associations were indeed much more widespread than our findings in young adults, indicating, unsurprisingly, more dynamic SC—FC coupling in adolescence that continues in some prefrontal regions into young adulthood.

We also show sex differences in SC—FC coupling, with males generally having stronger coupling, particularly in right orbito-frontal, default mode and ventral attention networks. This disagrees with recent findings in young adults that females had overall greater SC—FC coupling than their male counterparts, particularly in left inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right superior parietal gyrus They furthermore found higher SC—FC coupling in males in right insula, left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus Both studies did agree on males having larger SC—FC coupling in right supramarginal gyrus and right insula, but the rest of the results diverge.

Unlike 25 , our GLM framework controlled for covariates like in-scanner motion and intracranial volume, which have known sex differences and a complex relationship with BOLD signals 45 , Most previous publications investigating SC-FC relationships and their cognitive implications have explored correlations between impairment or cognition with the strength of the correlation between global, whole-brain SC and FC 19 , 22 , 47 , In their adolescent population, Baum et al. In agreement with their findings, we also observe a negative association of regional SC—FC coupling in supplementary motor areas as well as middle cingulate with total cognition scores.

The insula is a center of integration of many different domains of brain function; a meta-analysis of the function of the insula revealed an anterio-ventral social-emotional region, a mid-posterior sensorimotor region, a central olfacto-gustatory region, and an anterior-dorsal cognitive region The anterior insula region we found to have associations between SC—FC coupling and total cognition score overlaps most with the cognitive and social-emotional regulation portions of the insula. Stronger agreement in structure and functional connections in such a highly functionally diverse part of the brain that balances internal states with external environmental responses could indicate a better coordination of unimodal and transmodal systems.

Furthermore, we saw that SC—FC coupling heritability was not substantially explained by either SC or FC node strength heritability; in fact, it was only moderately correlated with FC node strength heritability and not correlated with SC node strength heritability. Previous studies have shown heritability of FC profiles, with the default mode network having highest heritability estimates ranging from 0. Some discrepancy with earlier work may arise from the fact we were measuring heritability of node degree rather than pairwise connections as well as differences in the model used to estimate heritability.

Limbic regions in particular had highest heritability among the cortical networks for FC node strength, which contradicts some previous work. Note, however, that since we only have one SC measurement per subject, our approach can not account for with-subject measurement error when estimating the heritability of SC, which might explain some of the differences compared to FC and SC—FC coupling. We do observe partial agreement with their findings in that unimodal visual networks, but not somatomotor networks, had higher anatomical SC heritability compared to many other cortical networks.

The results of the analyses in this work are limited by the characteristics of the individuals in the HCP young adult data set. As seen in previous work, SC—FC coupling relationships may vary differently with age across the lifespan, so interpretations of our current findings should be restricted to young adult populations. There are also limitations in the imaging modalities themselves that should be discussed. Motion is an important confound in fMRI and must be mitigated as much as possible; in addition to motion correction and global signal regression, we performed censoring of high-motion frames, which has been shown to further mitigate these effects 52 and included motion as a covariate in the GLM analysis.

Tractography algorithms are known to produce streamlines that are not fully reflective of actual anatomical connections 53 , Here, we somewhat mitigate this effect by using a global filtering algorithm, which has been shown to result in streamlines that are more reflective of underlying anatomy Measuring cognition is not an easy task; we chose here to investigate the highest-level composite score total cognition but future work could explore more specific cognitive scores like crystallized and fluid intelligence. Furthermore, in this whole-brain, atlased-based analysis of SC—FC coupling, all connections and regions are treated identically, even those in the cerebellum, subcortex and brainstem.

We believe that these regions play a very important role in overall patterns of brain activity and white-matter connections so we included them here; however, we also acknowledge that their microanatomy and anatomical connection type inhibitory versus excitatory may differ from that of cortical regions. Future work may attempt to modify the SC—FC coupling measure to account for these differences, e. Finally, the approach we used to estimate heritability assumes levels of genetic similarity based on kinship, as classically implemented 26 , instead of the more recent approaches that use geneotype data. These recent methods rely on genetic similarity estimates derived from genotype data and thus can be more refined than estimates based on average family relationships.

However, genotype-based heritability today is typically computed based on common SNPs and do not account for rare alleles and other types of genetic variation not correlated with common SNPs. Future work will incorporate geneotype data to extend the current estimates of SC—FC coupling heritability. We show that regional structure—function coupling is strongest in highly structurally connected visual and subcortical regions, varies with age and sex, is related to composite cognitive scores and is highly heritable. Taken together, these results demonstrate that investigating structure—function relationships at a macroscopic scale can reveal important knowledge in the study of brain form and function.

The data for this study comes from the publicly available HCP database containing high-resolution, preprocessed anatomical, diffusion and resting-state functional MRI data. The informed consent for all subjects was obtained by HCP. Our data usage was approved by HCP, and complies with all relevant ethical regulations for work with human participants. Specifically, we use WU-Minn HCP minimally processed S release, which includes high-resolution 3T MR scans, demographics, behavioral and cognitive scores for a population of young healthy adults age 22 to 37 years.

The replication out-of-sample analysis used another subset of unrelated HCP subjects age, It should be noted that, while each set of subjects did not contain relatives within them, there may be some familial relationships across the two sets of subjects, which could result in an overestimation of the out-of-sample reliability. For the GLM analyses shown in Fig. For the heritability analysis shown in Fig. In this set of subjects that had all four fMRI scans and a dMRI scan, there were MZ twin pairs, 61 DZ twin pairs, full siblings and singletons single-birth individuals without siblings. The HCP diffusion data 1. A multi-shell, multi-tissue constrained spherical deconvolution CSD model was computed in MRtrix3 to estimate the orientation distribution function We used a probabilistic iFOD2 57 , anatomically constrained ACT 58 tractography algorithm with dynamic white-matter seeding to create individual, whole-brain tractograms containing 5 million streamlines for each subject.

To better match the whole-brain tractogram to diffusion properties of the observed data, we also computed streamline weights that are designed to reduce known biases in tractography data SIFT2 Finally, the tractograms were used to estimate SC weights for the CC 33 atlas. The SC between any two regions was the SIFT2-weighted sum of streamlines connecting those regions divided by the sum of the gray matter volume of those regions. Congenital fear of snakes and spiders was found in six-month-old babies. The infant cannot otherwise protect itself for survival during its long period of maturation. The maternal instinct , manifest particularly in response to the infant cry, has long been respected as one of the most powerful.

The herd instinct is found in human children and chimpanzee cubs, but is apparently absent in the young orangutans. Squeamishness and disgust in humans is an instinct developed during evolution to protect the body and avoid infection by various diseases. Testosterone main male sex hormone primes several instincts, especially sexuality ; also dominance, manifest in self-affirmation , the urge to win over rivals see competitiveness , to dominate a hierarchy see dominance hierarchy , and to respond to violent signals in men see aggression , with weakening of empathy. Men exposed to the odors of ovulating women maintained a stable level of testosterone, which was higher than the level of testosterone in men exposed to non-ovulatory signals.

This is due to the fact that an ovulating woman is capable of conceiving , and therefore a man who feels the smell of an ovulating woman is given a signal to sexual activity. The socioeconomic environment of humans are a context which affect their brain development. Human nature — which some have argued to vary to some extent per individual and in time, not be static and, at least in the future, to some extent be purposely alterable [] — is one of the factors that shape which, how and when human activities are conducted.

The contemporary socioeconomic and collective decision-making mechanisms are structures that may affect the expression of human nature — for instance, innate tendencies to seek survival, well-being, respect and status that some consider fundamental to humans [] may result in varying product- designs , types of work, public infrastructure -designs and the distribution and prevalence of each. As with the nature versus nurture debate, which is concerned whether — or to which degrees — human behavior is determined by the environment or by a person's genes, scientific research is inconclusive about the degree to which human nature is shaped by and manageable by systemic structures as well as about how and to which degrees these structures can and should be purposely altered swiftly globally.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Human nature disambiguation. Main article: Christian theology. Main article: Fall of man. Main article: Regeneration theology. Main articles: Bioconservatism and Transhumanism. This section is missing information about beneficial and potentially beneficial effects of high endogenous testosterone in men. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. April Merriam-Webster Inc. Retrieved 21 June Random House Inc. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford Scholarship Online. ISBN Philosophy Compass. ISSN London: Routledge. PMID What Makes Us Think?

The American Journal of Bioethics. S2CID Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 7 February Retrieved Clarendon Press. International Wittgenstein Symposium. Singapore: Springer. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. January International Philosophical Quarterly. Stanford University Press. China's legalists: The earliest totalitarians and their art of ruling.

World History, Volume I: To 6th ed. Wadsworth Cengage. Journal of Chinese Philosophy. Christian Doctrine of Sin. Armstrong: Scribner. The Modern Library. Baker Publishing Group. Systematic Theology. Michigan: Eerdmans. Created in God's Image. A Dictionary of the Holy Bible. Griffin and Rudd. Templeton Press. Vanhoozer, gen. Oxford University Press. Hoekema, Created in God's Image Eerdmans, , Commentary on Romans. Scribner's Sons, s.

Bible Gateway. Bible Study Tools. The Selfish Gene 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burton White, 84, believed children should avoid day care - The Boston Globe". Raising a Happy, Unspoiled Child rev. The Challenge of Facts and Other Essays. Yale University. New York: HarperCollins. Elwell, ed, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology Baker, , Hoekema, Created in God's Image Eerdmans, , 21, Winkler ed. Conversations on human nature. Routledge, Metaphysics and the origins of species. Adapting minds. Philosophy of Science. CiteSeerX Retrieved — via ResearchGate. Philosophical Psychology. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement.

PMC — via PhilPapers. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. The Future of Human Nature. The New Atlantis. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Annas, L. Andrews, and R. Isasi American Journal of Law and Medicine. San Francisco: Encounter Books. Philosophy and Technology. EMBO Reports. ISSN X. PMC Frontiers in Psychology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Current Biology. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. Psychosomatic Medicine. Biological Psychiatry. Psychological Science. September I recommend his study for the admirable ambition and complexity of its important project and for the learned, probing and lucid way it executes it.

I conclude all the same with a few critical observations. Concerning the republic grounded on the sovereign general will, Douglass says Rousseau gives it two purposes: to bring about harmony between amour de soi and amour-propre, in the best case forestalling their conflict 15, , and to secure the expression of the free will of individuals As having these ends the political order is measured by "man's inalienable gifts of nature" that provide a normative standard Free will, Douglass claims, is one of those gifts, and in his account the most important differences between Rousseau and Hobbes are in their opposing accounts of natural goodness and free will , Douglass maintains with great energy that Rousseau is a metaphysical dualist and that he requires a non-materialist account of freedom in order to make the distinction between physical and moral force against Hobbes's account of legitimate authority , He relies on the brief statement in the Discourse on the consciousness of freedom as evidence for the spirituality of the soul and also on the Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar in Emile.

Putting aside doubts about whether the Vicar can be identified with Rousseau and Douglass sets them aside quickly , it should be noted that the Vicar's claims about the soul's immateriality are tentative: "We do not know ourselves; we know neither our nature nor our active principle. We hardly know if man is a simple or a compound being. Man is therefore free in his actions and as such is animated by an immaterial substance.

This is my third article of faith " my emphasis. The decisive thing for Rousseau is the sentiment of freedom as the sense that "actions are performed willingly and the will is never in opposition to -- or its determination as being perceived as dependent on -- the will of any other man" It is hard to see why this sentiment needs to be more than psychological in order to have the central place in human self-satisfaction and happiness that it has for Rousseau. At the same time, Rousseau is able to avoid metaphysical materialism without substance dualism: he could learn from Locke how to be agnostic about substance.

Douglass offers no explanation of how simple, uncorrupted natural sentiments become disordered passions. He speaks of the influence of technical advances, social relations and institutions. But what is the origin of these? It seems they arise from the same human nature that they corrupt, and nothing extraneous intervenes. So one must ask how the products of sound, original nature can be harmful to their producer.

Evidently there is a self-transforming process and a natural power that enables it. Rousseau names it: perfectibility, or "the faculty of perfecting oneself: a faculty which, with the aid of circumstances, successively develops all others. Douglass briefly mentions perfectibility twice without elaboration, not even offering a basic definition. It is the locus, however, of a highly sophisticated reflection in Rousseau on the relation between passion and thinking, or their mutual determination, in which passion stimulates thinking, resulting in the invention of ideas, which in turn modifies the passions, motivating more invention. Language has a crucial role in this process, and Douglass notes that affinities between Hobbes and Rousseau on the relations between passion, invention and language have been the subject of scholarly inquiry 99 -

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