What Is A Pathetic Fallacy

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What Is A Pathetic Fallacy

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What is Pathetic Fallacy? Explained in 4 Minutes

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A key feature of that picture is that succumbing to pathos is an error of reason - an intellectual mistake. Epicureanism interpreted and placed pathos in much more colloquial means and situations, placing it in pleasure, and studying it in almost every facet in regards to pleasure, analyzing emotional specificity that an individual may feel or may need to undergo to appreciate said pathos. In Rhetoric , Aristotle identifies three artistic modes of persuasion, one of which is "awakening emotion pathos in the audience so as to induce them to make the judgment desired. As such, emotions have specific causes and effects" Book 2. Aristotle details what individual emotions are useful to a speaker Book 2.

The same is true of the other emotions. For example, one would pair sadness with happiness Book 2. With this understanding, Aristotle argues for the rhetor to understand the entire situation of goals and audiences to decide which specific emotion the speaker would exhibit or call upon in order to persuade the audience. Aristotle's theory of pathos has three main foci: the frame of mind the audience is in, the variation of emotion between people, and the influence the rhetor has on the emotions of the audience. Aristotle classifies the third of this trio as the ultimate goal of pathos. Antoine Braet did a re-examination of Aristotle's text and in this he examined the speaker's goal of the effect on the audience. Braet explains there are three perspectives of every emotion that a speaker is trying to arouse from the audience: the audience's condition, who the audience is feeling these emotions for, and the motive.

Therefore, he stresses the importance of understanding specific social situations in order to successfully utilize pathos as a mode of persuasion. Aristotle identifies the introduction and the conclusion as the two most important places for an emotional appeal in any persuasive argument. Scholars have discussed the different interpretations of Aristotle's views of rhetoric and his philosophy. Some believe that Aristotle may not have even been the inventor of his famous persuasion methods.

In the second chapter of Rhetoric , Aristotle's view on pathos changes from the use in discourse to the understanding of emotions and their effects. William Fortenbaugh pointed out that for the Sophist Gorgias , "Being overcome with emotion is analogous to rape. Fortenbaugh argues that Aristotle's systematic approach to emotional appeals "depends upon correctly understanding the nature of individual emotions, upon knowing the conditions favorable to, the objects of, and the grounds for individual emotions".

George Campbell presents another view unlike the common systematic approach of Aristotle. Campbell explored whether appeals to emotion or passions would be "an unfair method of persuasion," identifying seven circumstances to judge emotions: probability, plausibility, importance, proximity in time, connection of place, relations to the persons concerned, and interest in the consequences. The 84 BC Rhetorica ad Herennium book of an unknown author theorizes that the conclusion is the most important place in a persuasive argument to consider emotions such as mercy or hatred, depending on the nature of the persuasion.

The author suggests ways in which to appeal to the pity of the audience: "We shall stir pity in our hearers by recalling vicissitudes of future; by comparing the prosperity we once enjoyed with our present adversity; by entreating those whose pity we seek to win, and by submitting ourselves to their mercy. Finally, the author suggests that the appeal to pity be brief for "nothing dries more quickly than a tear. The concept of emotional appeal existed in rhetoric long before Aristotle's Rhetoric. George A. Kennedy , a well-respected, modern-day scholar, identifies the appeal to emotions in the newly formed democratic court system before BC in his book, The Art of Persuasion in Greece. Gorgias believed the orator was able to capture and lead the audience in any direction they pleased through the use of emotional appeal.

Certain words act as "bringers-on of pleasure and takers-off of pain. Plato also discussed emotional appeal in rhetoric. Plato preceded Aristotle and therefore laid the groundwork, as did other Sophists, for Aristotle to theorize the concept of pathos. In his dialogue Gorgias , Plato discusses pleasure versus pain in the realm of pathos though in a probably fictional conversation between Gorgias and Socrates. The dialogue between several ancient rhetors that Plato created centers around the value of rhetoric, and the men incorporate aspects of pathos in their responses. Gorgias discredits pathos and instead promotes the use of ethos in persuasion.

He argues that emotional appeal in rhetoric should be used as the means to an end and not the point of the discussion. George Campbell , a contributor to the Scottish Enlightenment, was one of the first rhetoricians to incorporate scientific evidence into his theory of emotional appeal. The book synthesized emotions and neurology and introduced the concept that action is a result of impression. Hartley determined that emotions drive people to react to appeals based on circumstance but also passions made up of cognitive impulses. Pathos has its hand in politics as well, primarily in speech and how to persuade the audience.

Mshvenieradze states that "Pathos is directly linked with an audience. Audience is a collective subject of speakers on which an orator tries to impact by own argumentation. In the case of politics and politicians, it is primarily more in argumentative writing and speaking. In Book II of Aristotle's writing's in Rhetoric, in essence knowing people's emotions helps to enable one to act with words versus writing alone, to earn another's credibility and faith. As Aristotle's teachings expanded, many other groups of thinkers would go on to adopt different variations of political usage with the elements of pathos involved, which includes groups such as the Epicureans [26] and Stoics. The contemporary landscape for advertising is highly competitive due to the sheer amount of marketing done by companies.

Pathos has become a popular tool to draw consumers in as it targets their emotional side. Studies show that emotion influences people's information processing and decision-making, making pathos a perfect tool for persuading consumers to buy goods and services. For example, this type of advertising is exemplified in large food brands such as Presidents Choice's "Eat Together" campaign , and Coca-Cola's "Open-happiness" campaign One of the most well known examples of pathos in advertising is the SPCA commercials with pictures of stray dogs with sad music.

Pathos can also be also used in credited medical journals, research and other academic pieces of writing. The goal is to appeal to the readers' emotion while maintaining the necessary requirements of the medical discourse community. Authors may do so, by using certain vocabulary to elicit an emotional response from the audience. It is imperative that authors still preserve the standard of writing within the medical community by focusing on factual and scientific information without use of personal opinion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Pathos film. For the manga, see Pathos manga. Not to be confused with Pothos or Bathos. See also: Stoic passions. Strategic management communication for leaders. However, ecological studies have limitations, the 'ecological bias ' or 'ecological fallacy ' being the major one.

I illustrate the paradox by a dozen apparent fallacies; each can be logically deduced from the environmental structure and an unbiased mind. This is a fallacy , especially regarding the collection of information about occupations. It also covers religious societies that are dedicated to advocating and spreading the creeds regarded by the rulers as fallacies threatening to their ideological hegemony. The fallacy of employing standardized regression coefficients and correlations as measures of effect. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Translations of fallacy in Chinese Traditional. See more. Need a translator?

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