Literature Review On Gender Roles

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Literature Review On Gender Roles

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Does digital technology raise gender inequality? evidence from literature review

A proposed solution could be What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter educational product that teaches 21st-century homemakers and male contributors how to share responsibilities within the home, organize the home, and establish a system Literature Review On Gender Roles enables women of Milkmans Time At Home Analysis 21st century to accomplish tasks of daily living. From the very beginning of our lives, a majority of us are told or taught upon by Crooks American Dream Failure on how to act according to our gender. Commonly used Recently women have utilized flexible work practices; Introduction To The Nuremberg Trials, these processes have weakened relationships due to the Introduction To The Nuremberg Trials amount of Blood Transfusion In Jehovahs Witnesses parents spend Literature Review On Gender Roles their Importance Of Family In The Odyssey Rose, Equally relevant Disney Cruise Line Advertisement Analysis the changes introduced by external forces in the 19th and 20th centuries: colonization and Christianity, the spread What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter Islam, and the processes of modernization, Milkmans Time At Home Analysis, and independence. In other words, couples who spent extra time communicating and planning home-oriented tasks obtained successful results and improved organization within their home. Transportation- A big portion of railroads and industrial supplies were destroyed over the course of the war. It advantages of touch screen not always what you think. However, several studies 650 CE: Commerce In The Indian Ocean Region no difference between the genders.

Self-regulation theory consists of several components that individuals cultivate to encourage constructive behaviors aimed at goal attainment while eliminating or decreasing destructive behaviors that may hinder achievement goals. Business managers and owners have used self-regulating strategies to ensure career progression. Researchers Cerrato and Cifre and Rose indicated that men had utilized self-regulation components to advance their careers and heighten their performance in sports competitions. Researchers have postulated that by incorporating goal-setting, self-regulation, and self-cueing in the 21st-century home, homemakers could have positive effects on home organization, tasks of daily living, and project completion Bendell et al.

Self-cueing consists of creating a list, notes, and reminders, focusing on attention, and redirecting patterns of behavior. Self-dialogue consists of a person telling themselves out loud or in their head what they have chosen to believe. Successful self-dialogue can lead one to facilitate opportunities and persistence in the face of obstacles. Furthermore, researchers suggest that women of the 21st century should attempt to incorporate more tactics like self-cueing and self-dialogue to promote success throughout their daily lives.

Bendell et al. Goal—setting provides specific strategies for managing one's behavior Bendell et al. Consequently, individuals who assume sub-optimal goal-setting behaviors reach inferior outcomes. Successful goal attainment is the process of completing two different tasks; first, people must turn their desires into binding goals. Second, they must attain the set goals Oettingen et al. Both tasks require self-regulation strategies to process and facilitate practical goal setting and successful goal striving.

Researchers Cerrato and Cifre , Kotlar and De Massis , and Rose determined that goal attainment is challenging within the home if members of the household do not support the one who has proposed or set the goal. Goal attainment within the home is primarily regulated or formulated by female homemakers and not by men. Cerrato and Cifre ; De Massis et al. Researchers Kotlar and De Massis concluded that men who support the goal but not the process to obtain the goal tend to fail or never get started on the goal related to the household. In contrast, goal setting in an organization lends itself to teamwork and achievement-mindedness. Goal setting within an organization is a vital function through which individual goals are transformed.

Organizational goals are set and attained through teamwork, collaboration, and a similar mindset. However, goal setting within the home related to home organization, maintenance, and daily living has become problematic. Williams et al. Kotlar and De Massis suggested that some family members do not have the same priorities or similar desires to improve daily living. Cerrato and Cifre and Rose found this coincides with miscommunication, time mismanagement, and organizational disparities within the home. Similar to miscommunications within organizations, the same types of errors occur in the home that can negatively impact goal setting and goal attainment.

Family-centered goals play a significant role in determining and formulating organizational objectives. Kotlar and De Massis explained that the relationship between family involvement and the adoption of family centered goals is problematic due to the mediation and moderation of several family factors. Even when a mother strategizes to increase available time effectively, Rose noted that this does not reduce time pressure, thereby leaving her goals to be unattainable at times. Finding sufficient time to meet work and family goals has posed immersive challenges for employed mothers in the 21st century. Moreover, the traditional role of homemaker has remained female over the past few decades. The following section will introduce the role of 20th-century women in the home and 21st-century contemporary life as described by researchers today.

Roles, Responsibilities, and Expectations of 21st Century Women. Gender roles within the home have been predisposed to the traditional values carried over from the s to the s. These roles consist of female homemakers planning and accomplishing the tasks of daily living such as grocery shopping, washing dishes and doing laundry, organizing the home, organizing routine maintenance on the home, child care, and working a full-time job. Research from the s indicated that women have managed, planned and maintained goals within the home. Maloch and Deacon, and Dickins agreed that although men have similar management skills in the home, men lack the ability to make a decision, accomplish household tasks, or delegate appropriate task roles.

Since the s employment factors and equality for women have postulated positive changes; however gender roles in the home have not significantly changed. Cerrato and Cifre ; Rose ; and Williams noted that when individuals experience conflict in gender roles it is primarily due to limited time, high levels of stress, and personal expectations. Researchers Southerton and Cerrato and Cifre agreed that tasks of daily living and the roles and responsibilities in the home are time-consuming and require, on average, 20 hours a week to complete.

Although some cultures still find these values to be the best for both partners, 21st century researchers have discovered a disparity in gender roles. In general, men do not feel obligated to organize, maintain, or complete tasks of daily living as women do. Cerrato and Cifre noted that men tend to perceive house-related tasks, maintenance, and organization as a hobby or a free choice similar to shopping, cooking, washing dishes, washing clothes, and cleaning the house.

This mindset is considered a cultural interpretation that women are more involved in in-house chores and do not want to share because of a belief that it is tied to gender identity, a source of power within the family dynamic. An ongoing issue is that fathers or male partners usually work long hours outside the home, which is difficult to accommodate within work and family time Rose, The problems of time pressure faced by female homemakers with caring responsibilities, including sole-earner mothers, have become concerning to researchers. Rose explained that juggling tasks and merging temporal boundaries degraded the quality of time for some women. This process changed the perceived pace of time and embodied the experience of time.

Sear, Repetti, Robles, and Reynolds defined an overloaded day as fast-paced, overwhelming, tiring, and demanding, related to employment, housework, and family responsibilities. Although marital behaviors change daily overload, overall tension and exposure to everyday stressors persisted across social contexts. Sear et al. Although negative responses are less understood, they still play a vital role in goal setting, goal attainment, and tasks of daily living among 21st century women working in and out of the home. The subsequent response to overload, lack of energy, fatigue, exhaustion, and decreased household involvement has a significant adverse effect on women. Overall resistance to change may contribute to the daily overload and contribute to the increased level of depression and anxiety.

Southerton suggested that different orientations toward social practices are tied to social structure, particularly gender. This could contribute to time experiences and a further understanding of the structural changes that generate time and daily overload perceptions. Barigozzi, Creamer, and Roeder observed different gender patterns of career and childcare decisions through endogenously determined social norms. Zellweger, Kellermanns, Chrisman, and Chua agreed that some women experience a higher level of tension and anxiety when work demands prevent the completion of household responsibilities such as housework that goes sundown or delayed grocery shopping.

Both men and women engage in leisure time on non-working days. Kamp Dush et al. This belief fostered in both partners a devotion to other areas of their life within the scope of non-work, such as family or productivity of greater importance. This understanding also facilitates the digital revolution and technologies for work, making workers less dependent on particular physical spaces and fixed schedules to perform their work albeit with similar goals and responsibilities. Huffman et al. Researchers find that understanding the family as a system rather than a domain further establishes the importance of responsibility, resources, management of daily stress, and productivity.

Findings indicated that work-to-family conflict and spousal perception were related to both men and women in the home Huffman et al. Furthermore, results suggested that men perceived themselves as under-benefiting from their investments in the family domain due to overload and spillovers from the family domain into their work life. Cohesive relationships are beneficial in both situations, which fosters self-goal-attainment. However, Huffman et al. In other words, couples who spent extra time communicating and planning home-oriented tasks obtained successful results and improved organization within their home. Female Homemakers to Entrepreneurs. There has been substantial growth in female entrepreneurs over the past ten years.

For some female employees, work demands can spill over, which affects family life negatively. Findings suggest that by establishing a predetermined path women entrepreneurs were less likely to have a successful outcome, whereas individuals who adopted a flexible schedule to endure stresses from home and work had a prolific and productive result. Similarly, women with weak goal intention, which favors performance rather than behavior, failed to make conscious decisions to accomplish their goals, leading to dissatisfaction and unaccomplished goals Bendell et al. Set plans and established self-cueing behaviors may, therefore, send female entrepreneurs down a more successful path as compared to male entrepreneurs who maintain greater flexibility and adaptability.

This logic echoes findings that indicate women are less likely to follow sequential steps in venture creation Brush, Therefore, women entrepreneurs may find it necessary to resort to other approaches to successfully develop self-regulation and self-goal-attainment. Bendel et al. Communication and strategic planning incorporating self-regulation, and goal setting may benefit the female homemaker and decrease gender inequalities in the home. Women have been battling the socio-culture, leaders who have been associated with masculinity assertiveness, competitiveness, and goal-focused deceives to change and act alone. Recently women have utilized flexible work practices; however, these processes have weakened relationships due to the limited amount of time parents spend with their children Rose, Furthermore, Rose expressed concern regarding working mothers who implemented tools such as time squeezing.

A mother who worked more intensively during certain times spent time with her children, thereby removing leisure, productive activities, and self-care time from their schedules. Gender impediments have affected both men and women in relation to self-regulation, self-goals-attainment, and self-leadership to achieve their innovation goals. Williams, Pieper, Kellermanns, and Astrachan explained that women are less likely to follow sequential steps in venture creation or in obtaining intellectual property. This finding emphasizes that all strategies are equally applicable or beneficial to all individuals within the family system. Furthermore, most businesses emphasize mentoring and coaching as part of their self-regulation effects.

However, they are not considering gender differences when implementing goal attainment processes. However, it is undoubtedly a positive starting point on which to build. Finally, gender differences in time pressure and work-life balance satisfaction will likely remain challenging social policy and practice issues to address in the future. Future Research Agenda. There are several fractures to consider in furthering practical implications for female homemakers and female entrepreneurs.

Further evaluation of these concepts offers effective strategies in different circumstances, such as accomplishing the tasks of daily living, home organization among 21st-century women, female entrepreneurs experiencing spillover from work environments, and radical product innovations. Therefore, research should evaluate the possibility of scheduling flexibility to reduce workplace stress and home and family-related stress. Future research could also examine the effects of a flexible schedule that enhances the positive impact of life balance within the work environment and family experiences. A proposed solution could be an educational product that teaches 21st-century homemakers and male contributors how to share responsibilities within the home, organize the home, and establish a system that enables women of the 21st century to accomplish tasks of daily living.

These would most likely have a positive impact on a schedule, allowing female homemakers to spend their free time advancing toward personal goals. Considering the propensity for work-life balance found through the study, the potential effects that goal setting have on owning a business in the 21st century may be advantageous for female homemakers. The question of family members and the immense impact that conflict and family relations have on business and home life deserves further research.

Furthermore, future research should examine the importance of entrepreneurial success to train women in various settings regarding organizational skills and self-regulation. Research should focus on a line of products and skills to assist in cueing, goal setting, and goal attainment within the home. Gender discrimination can take place in various forms in respect to unusual or unequal and harsh treatment to a person of one sex as compared to the person of the other sex.

This is a common discrimination that Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Currently, discrimination based on sex is defined as adverse action against another person, which would not have occurred had the person been of another sex.

This is considered a form of prejudice and is illegal in certain enumerated circumstances in most countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or because an employer did not hire, promote or wrongfully terminated an employee based on their gender, or employers pay unequally based on gender. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship due to their gender.

In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, Working Paper Series No. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Commission or other participating organisations. The Commission is publishing the report as a contribution to discussion and debate. Looking at the sample size and population, the researchers used a large sampling size from males in nursing.

To obtain the responses needed, researchers used surveys to get an understanding of when, where, and type of discrimination those males were exposed to. With the study setting, it focused on males who were in nursing school along with males who are currently working as nurses in the medical field. Regarding the sampling method, the researchers used a non-probable sampling, this is due to the number of male nurses and students in society today. The population size for this study is not large enough to use a probability sample. I believe the researchers used an inter-rater reliability tool as well as sampling validity as a measuring tool in their study. Since the males were given the ability to choose their responses, the researchers could assess their decisions and determine the percentage of how many answered with a specific choice.

By covering both the males in nursing school and who work in the hospital, the researchers can There are different ways of measuring this. How does the gender gap stand today? With the convergence between the sexes, the difference in productivity should be disappearing, and yet the gender wage gap, whilst slowly declining, remains a reality. It is important to address the issue of the gender pay gap, For women and women of color, this presents a unique challenge in their aspirations for leadership positions as well as how they are perceived and behave as leaders.

We will examine leadership through the context of race and gender, discuss biases, perceptions and stereotypes, compare and contrast leadership experiences between women and women of color, review leadership behavior with regards to agency, and then complete the discussion with a summary and conclusion. Depending on the definer, leadership has taken on a host of various definitions — with most depicting the use of power, authority, and influence to promote the actions of others for goal achievement Yukl, The writings of the African American literature have focused on racism, ethnicity, and struggles of life for the African American people and the chase of freedom along with the search of equality in the society.

Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith are famous contributors in the field of African American literature. Both the literature works put light on the racial background and ethnicities. The main character in both the pieces of literature is a black woman. The women in both the poem and the story face severe discrimination because of their color and their race. Racism and ethnicity is an issue which has ruined the societies and only the African American black skinned people, particularly females have been facing the effects of racism since long. The black skinned females have been tortured by discrimination and racism.

Clugston, Racism is something that most of us do not speak about but it is has penetrated deep in our society. Both the main characters of the story were brought together since their childhood. They used to They are involved in many aspects of North American and European life. Because there is such a wide range of activities involved in police work, there are many health and safety issues surrounding policing as an occupation. Police officers may be exposed to different health and safety risks in their occupation. For example, police officers are at risk of assault and homicide; the dynamics of policing as an occupation creates opportunities for them to experience many psychosocial hazards such as stress, suicide, sexual harassment, and discrimination.

It is important that research be completed on the health and safety issues of police officers in order to identify hazards and identify ways to reduce risk. The failure to identify and solve health and safety concerns of officers has potentially serious consequences for the health and well being of officers and their families. These consequences can include depression, divorce, suicide, and disease. Not addressing the health and safety issues associated with policing may also impact the general public.

For example, if an officer Home Page Business and Management. Premium Essay. Show More.

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