Advantages Of Why Did The Union Win The Civil War

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Advantages Of Why Did The Union Win The Civil War

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Why did the Union Win the Civil War? pt1 Prof. Susan Mary Grant

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Son of the South. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Joseph E. Johnston was a U. The reason the South fought the American Civil War has been contested ever since the Confederacy surrendered in Robert Kennedy was the U. The leader of Zimbabwe since its independence in , Robert Mugabe was one of the longest-serving and, in the latter years of his reign, most infamous African rulers.

After a difficult childhood, he graduated from the U. He then Jubal Early was a U. Early participated in nearly all the major campaigns of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and figured prominently during the Battles George Pickett was a U. The election of Abraham Lincoln in caused seven southern states to secede and form the Confederate Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Recommended for you.

Knights of Labor. Lee Surrenders. The nation's factories were converted to produce the rifles, cannons, wagons, tents, telegraph sets, and the myriad of other special items the army needed. While business had been slow or depressed in spring , because of war fears and Southern boycotts, by fall business was hiring again, offering young men jobs that were an alternative way to help win the war. Nonpartisanship was the rule in the first year, but by summer , many Democrats had stopped supporting the war effort, and volunteering fell off sharply in their strongholds. The calls for more and more soldiers continued, so states and localities responded by offering cash bonuses. By , a draft law was in effect, but few men actually were drafted and served, since the law was designed to get them to volunteer or hire a substitute.

Others hid away or left the country. With the Emancipation Proclamation taking effect in January , localities could meet their draft quota by sponsoring regiments of ex-slaves organized in the South. Michigan was especially eager to send thousands of volunteers. However, by the casualties were mounting, and the war was increasingly focused on freeing the slaves in addition to preserving the Union. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became an increasingly partisan Republican effort. Perman says historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer, and die over four years:. Some historians emphasize that Civil War soldiers were driven by political ideology, holding firm beliefs about the importance of liberty, Union, or state rights, or about the need to protect or to destroy slavery.

Others point to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one's home and family, or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men. Most historians agree that, no matter what he thought about when he went into the war, the experience of combat affected him profoundly and sometimes affected his reasons for continuing to fight. On the whole, the national, state, and local governments handled the avalanche of paperwork effectively.

Skills developed in insurance and financial companies formed the basis of systematic forms, copies, summaries, and filing systems used to make sense of masses of human data. The leader in this effort, John Shaw Billings , later developed a system of mechanically storing, sorting, and counting numerical information using punch cards. Nevertheless, old-fashioned methodology had to be recognized and overcome. An illustrative case study came in New Hampshire, where the critical post of state adjutant general was held in —64 by elderly politician Anthony C. Colby — and his son Daniel E. Colby — They were patriotic, but were overwhelmed with the complexity of their duties. The state lost track of men who enlisted after ; it had no personnel records or information on volunteers, substitutes, or draftees, and there was no inventory of weaponry and supplies.

Nathaniel Head — took over in , obtained an adequate budget and office staff, and reconstructed the missing paperwork. As result, widows, orphans, and disabled veterans received the postwar payments they had earned. More soldiers died of disease than from battle injuries, and even larger numbers were temporarily incapacitated by wounds, disease, and accidents. The Union responded by building army hospitals in every state.

The hygiene of the camps was poor, especially at the beginning of the war when men who had seldom been far from home were brought together for training with thousands of strangers. First came epidemics of the childhood diseases of chicken pox , mumps , whooping cough , and especially, measles. Operations in the South meant a dangerous and new disease environment, bringing diarrhea , dysentery , typhoid fever , and malaria. There were no antibiotics, so the surgeons prescribed coffee, whiskey, and quinine. Harsh weather, bad water, inadequate shelter in winter quarters, poor policing of camps, and dirty camp hospitals took their toll. What was different in the Union was the emergence of skilled, well-funded medical organizers who took proactive action, especially in the much enlarged United States Army Medical Department, [38] and the United States Sanitary Commission , a new private agency.

Systematic funding appeals raised public consciousness as well as millions of dollars. Many thousands of volunteers worked in the hospitals and rest homes, most famously poet Walt Whitman. Frederick Law Olmsted , a famous landscape architect, was the highly efficient executive director of the Sanitary Commission. States could use their own tax money to support their troops, as Ohio did. Following the unexpected carnage at the battle of Shiloh in April , Ohio sent three steamboats to the scene as floating hospitals equipped with doctors, nurses, and medical supplies. The state fleet expanded to 11 hospital ships, and the state set up 12 local offices in main transportation nodes, to help Ohio soldiers moving back and forth.

The Christian Commission comprised 6, volunteers who aided chaplains in many ways. The Army learned many lessons and modernized its procedures, [44] and medical science—especially surgery—made many advances. Additionally, women gained new public roles. For example, Mary Livermore — , the manager of the Chicago branch of the US Sanitary Commission, used her newfound organizational skills to mobilize support for women's suffrage after the war. She argued that women needed more education and job opportunities to help them fulfill their role of serving others.

The Sanitary Commission collected enormous amounts of statistical data, and opened up the problems of storing information for fast access and mechanically searching for data patterns. A senior surgeon in the war, Billings built two of the world's most important libraries, Library of the Surgeon General's Office now the National Library of Medicine and the New York Public Library ; he also figured out how to mechanically analyze data by turning it into numbers and punching onto the computer punch card, later developed by his student Herman Hollerith.

Both sides operated prison camps; they handled about , captives, but many other prisoners were quickly released and never sent to camps. The Record and Pension Office in counted , Northerners who were captured. In —63 most were immediately paroled; after the parole exchange system broke down in , about , went to Confederate prison camps. Some tried to escape but few succeeded.

By contrast , Confederates were captured many in the final days and , imprisoned. Over 30, Union and nearly 26, Confederate prisoners died in captivity. Discontent with the draft law led to riots in several cities and in rural areas as well. Initially focused on the draft, the protests quickly expanded into violent attacks on blacks in New York City, with many killed on the streets. Small-scale riots broke out in ethnic German and Irish districts, and in areas along the Ohio River with many Copperheads.

Holmes County, Ohio was an isolated parochial area dominated by Pennsylvania Dutch and some recent German immigrants. It was a Democratic stronghold and few men dared speak out in favor of conscription. Local politicians denounced Lincoln and Congress as despotic, seeing the draft law as a violation of their local autonomy. In June , small-scale disturbances broke out; they ended when the Army sent in armed units. The Union economy grew and prospered during the war while fielding a very large army and navy. The South had resisted policies such as tariffs to promote industry and homestead laws to promote farming because slavery would not benefit.

With the South gone and Northern Democrats weak, the Republicans enacted their legislation. At the same time they passed new taxes to pay for part of the war and issued large amounts of bonds to pay for most of the rest. Economic historians attribute the remainder of the cost of the war to inflation. Congress wrote an elaborate program of economic modernization that had the dual purpose of winning the war and permanently transforming the economy. In the Treasury was a small operation that funded the small-scale operations of the government through land sales and customs based on a low tariff. Chase showed unusual ingenuity in financing the war without crippling the economy.

The government paid for supplies in real money, which encouraged people to sell to the government regardless of their politics. By contrast the Confederacy gave paper promissory notes when it seized property, so that even loyal Confederates would hide their horses and mules rather than sell them for dubious paper. Overall the Northern financial system was highly successful in raising money and turning patriotism into profit, while the Confederate system impoverished its patriots. Second came much higher tariffs, through several Morrill tariff laws. Third came the nation's first income tax; only the wealthy paid and it was repealed at war's end. Apart from taxes, the second major source of income was government bonds. For the first time bonds in small denominations were sold directly to the people, with publicity and patriotism as key factors, as designed by banker Jay Cooke.

State banks lost their power to issue banknotes. Only national banks could do that and Chase made it easy to become a national bank; it involved buying and holding federal bonds and financiers rushed to open these banks. Chase numbered them, so that the first one in each city was the "First National Bank". They led to endless controversy because they caused inflation. The North's most important war measure was perhaps the creation of a system of national banks that provided a sound currency for the industrial expansion. Even more important, the hundreds of new banks that were allowed to open were required to purchase government bonds.

Thereby the nation monetized the potential wealth represented by farms, urban buildings, factories, and businesses, and immediately turned that money over to the Treasury for war needs. Secretary Chase, though a long-time free-trader, worked with Morrill to pass a second tariff bill in summer , raising rates another 10 points in order to generate more revenues. The Morrill Tariff of was designed to raise revenue. The tariff act of served not only to raise revenue but also to encourage the establishment of factories free from British competition by taxing British imports. Furthermore, it protected American factory workers from low paid European workers, and as a major bonus attracted tens of thousands of those Europeans to immigrate to America for high wage factory and craftsman jobs.

The U. The challenge was to make the land useful to people and to provide the economic basis for the wealth that would pay off the war debt. Land grants went to railroad construction companies to open up the western plains and link up to California. Together with the free lands provided farmers by the Homestead Law the low-cost farm lands provided by the land grants sped up the expansion of commercial agriculture in the West.

The Homestead Act opened up the public domain lands for free. Land grants to the railroads meant they could sell tracts for family farms 80 to acres at low prices with extended credit. In addition the government sponsored fresh information, scientific methods and the latest techniques through the newly established Department of Agriculture and the Morrill Land Grant College Act. Agriculture was the largest single industry and it prospered during the war. The war acted as a catalyst that encouraged the rapid adoption of horse-drawn machinery and other implements. The rapid spread of recent inventions such as the reaper and mower made the work force efficient, even as hundreds of thousands of farmers were in the army.

Many wives took their place and often consulted by mail on what to do; increasingly they relied on community and extended kin for advice and help. The Union used hundreds of thousands of animals. The Army had plenty of cash to purchase them from farmers and breeders but especially in the early months the quality was mixed. The supply held up, despite an unprecedented epidemic of glanders , a fatal disease that baffled veterinarians.

The Treasury started buying cotton during the war, for shipment to Europe and northern mills. The sellers were Southern planters who needed the cash, regardless of their patriotism. The Northern buyers could make heavy profits, which annoyed soldiers like Ulysses Grant. He blamed Jewish traders and expelled them from his lines in but Lincoln quickly overruled this show of anti-semitism. Critics said the cotton trade helped the South, prolonged the war and fostered corruption.

Lincoln decided to continue the trade for fear that Britain might intervene if its textile manufacturers were denied raw material. Another goal was to foster latent Unionism in Southern border states. Northern textile manufacturers needed cotton to remain in business and to make uniforms, while cotton exports to Europe provided an important source of gold to finance the war. The Protestant religion was quite strong in the North in the s. The United States Christian Commission sent agents into the Army camps to provide psychological support as well as books, newspapers, food and clothing.

Through prayer, sermons and welfare operations, the agents ministered to soldiers' spiritual as well as temporal needs as they sought to bring the men to a Christian way of life. Much of the political rhetoric of the era had a distinct religious tone. The Protestant clergy in America took a variety of positions. In general, the pietistic denominations such as the Methodists, Northern Baptists and Congregationalists strongly supported the war effort. Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans and conservative Presbyterians generally avoided any discussion of the war, so it would not bitterly divide their membership.

The Quakers, while giving strong support to the abolitionist movement on a personal level, refused to take a denominational position. Some clergymen who supported the Confederacy were denounced as Copperheads, especially in the border regions. Many Northerners had only recently become religious following the Second Great Awakening and religion was a powerful force in their lives. No denomination was more active in supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Carwardine [81] argues that for many Methodists, the victory of Lincoln in heralded the arrival of the kingdom of God in America. They were moved into action by a vision of freedom for slaves, freedom from the persecutions of godly abolitionists, release from the Slave Power 's evil grip on the American government and the promise of a new direction for the Union. Dissident Methodists left the church. The Methodist family magazine Ladies' Repository promoted Christian family activism. Its articles provided moral uplift to women and children.

It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery. It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the Union cause. Historian Stephen M. Frank reports that what it meant to be a father varied with status and age. He says most men demonstrated dual commitments as providers and nurturers and believed that husband and wife had mutual obligations toward their children. It is harder to see these other more formal, even legal forms of corruption. It is easy to assume that these are not even issues because they are part of the laws and institutions that govern national and international communities and many of us will be accustomed to it—it is how it works, so to speak.

When asking why poor countries are poor, it is quite common to hear, especially in wealthier countries that are perceived to have minimal corruption at least domestically that other countries are poor because of corruption. Yet, corruption is not something limited to third world despots. Rich countries too have been involved in corrupt practices around the world. Specific problems he highlights include:. Bribery may be pervasive, but it is difficult to detect. Many Western companies do not dirty their own hands, but instead pay local agents, who get a 10 per cent or so success fee if a contract goes through and who have access to the necessary slush funds to ensure that it does.

Bribery is also increasingly subtle. Many countries including France, Germany and the UK treated bribes as legitimate business expenses which could be claimed for tax deduction purposes. Professor Neild is worth quoting at extensive length on the impacts the Cold War had in terms of encouraging or exacerbating corruption in the developing countries:. A feeling of vulnerability was understandable. The Soviet Union … was largely self-sufficient …; the West, in need of increasing supplies for its growing industrial production, depended heavily on imports from Third World countries…. Western governments used diplomacy plus overt and covert military operations to counter the Communists. Meanwhile western firms paid rulers to obtain concessions to extract oil and minerals.

The business of obtaining oil and mineral concessions has aways been conducive to the use of bribes, omissions, gifts, and favors, and remains so since there are huge rents i. Third World governments rarely use auctions [for concession, which, when done honestly, removes the opportunity for buyers to bribe sellers]. They commonly sell concessions by negotiation. For which there are some good reasons. Hence strategic and diplomatic consideration enter the calculation: the government will want to give the concession to a company backed by a government which it believes will be helpful to it in its international relations—and in supplying it with arms and mercenaries.

But …. Those who run a government that has a concession to sell will know that negotiation creates a strong incentive to the potential buyers to offer them bribes : they will know this from the point of view of the buyers, a sum that will only add a small percentage to, say, a billion dollar deal, will be worth paying in order to win the concession.

Once negotiation is adopted as the means of allocating concessions, the dominant incentive is for bidders to engage competitively in the bribery of local rulers and fixers. Of particular concern to Neild in this is. Of this there has been considerable evidence in scandals that have occurred recently in Britain, France and Germany…. Le Monde published an outspoken editorial commenting on the [French company, Elf Aquitaine, corruption] affair:. Tarallo [a senior Elf Manager] is unfortunately right when he says that all petrol companies use it… But the sins of others do not absolve Elf. Added to which … Elf has used its money to keep in power dictators whose principle aim has been not the development of their country but their personal enrichment. In exchange, Paris could count on their support in its diplomatic battles and could offer captive markets to French firms….

This neo-colonialism was put in place during the presidency of General de Gaulle and has been maintained by subsequent governments regardless of party…. Looked at today the picture is not glorious. A former colonial power has taught corruption to its African clients—who were willing pupils—and there is nothing to persuade us that they have not rewarded their friends in Paris…. Corruption scandals that sometimes make headline news in Western media can often be worse in developing countries. This is especially the case as the previous link argues when it is multinational companies going into poorer countries to do business.

The international business environment, encouraged by a form of globalization that is heavily influenced by the wealthier and more powerful countries in the world makes it easier for multinationals to make profit and even for a few countries to benefit. However, some policies behind globalization appear to encourage and exacerbate corruption as accountability of governments and companies have been reduced along the way. For example,. For multinationals, bribery enables companies to gain contracts particularly for public works and military equipment or concessions which they would not otherwise have won, or to do so on more favorable terms.

Every year, Western businesses pay huge amounts of money in bribes to win friends, influence and contracts. At a deeper level are the policies that form the backbone to globalization. For years, they have received sharp criticism for exacerbating poverty through policies such as Structural Adjustment , rapid deregulation and opening barriers to trade before poorer countries are economic ready to do so.

This has also created situations ripe for corruption to flourish:. As Western governments and the World Bank and IMF shout ever more loudly about corruption, their own policies are making it worse in both North and South. Particularly at fault are deregulation, privatization, and structural adjustment policies requiring civil service reform and economic liberalization. In , the World Bank asserted that:. Thus policies that lower controls on foreign trade, remove entry barriers to private industry, and privatize state firms in a way that ensure competition will all support the fight.

The Bank has so far shown no signs of taking back this view. It continues to claim that corruption can be battled through deregulation of the economy; public sector reform in areas such as customs, tax administration and civil service; strengthening of anti-corruption and audit bodies; and decentralization. Yet the empirical evidence, much of it from the World Bank itself, suggests that, far from reducing corruption, such policies, and the manner in which they have been implemented, have in some circumstances increased it. Jubilee Research formerly the prominent Jubilee debt relief campaign organization has similar criticisms, and is also worth quoting at length:.

Rich country politicians and bank officials argue that because dictators like Marcos, Suharto, and Mobutu were kept in power with western arms and were given loans to squander on ill-judged and repressive schemes, that the people of those countries—who often fought valiantly against those dictators—cannot be trusted not to waste the money released by debt cancellation. In summary:. To many people in the South, this seems irrational and illogical—the logic of blaming the victim.

It is the logic of power rather than of integrity, and is used to benefit the rich rather than the poor in developing countries. A similar logic argues that if the World Bank and government export credit agencies promoted inappropriate and unprofitable projects, then southern governments proved their inability to control money because they accepted the ill-advised projects in the first place. Thus, if money is released by debt cancellation, it must be controlled by agencies which promoted those failed projects.

This is the logic that says if people were stupid enough to believe cigarette advertising, then they are too stupid to take care of themselves and the reformed cigarette companies should be put in charge of their health care. The same institutions who made the corrupt loans to Zaire and lent for projects in Africa that failed repeatedly are still in charge, but their role has been enhanced because of their success in pushing loans. Can we trust these institutions to suddenly only lend wisely; to not give loans when the money might be wasted? Preventing new wasted loans and new debt crises, and ensuring that there is not another debt crisis, means that the people who pushed the loans and caused this crisis cannot be left in charge.

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