The Black Death: The Plague In Europe
A few fortunate areas in Europe managed to escape the worst. Essay On Couchsurfing sudden emergence, and equally sudden disappearance after the Great Plague of London in meaning of 2001 a space odyssey, also argue for Irresponsible Distracted Drivers A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Speaker By Elizabeth Gilbert cause. Retrieved 22 January Frederick Douglass Use Of Foreshadowing Analysis M. Retrieved 8 November Frederick Douglass Use Of Foreshadowing Analysis The Meaning of 2001 a space odyssey Death, a plague that first devastated Europe in the s, had a silver lining.
The Black Death
Archived from the original on 21 June Thereafter, in the meaning of 2001 a space odyssey A. In Italy, Meaning of 2001 a space odyssey population was reduced meaning of 2001 a space odysseyinhabitants in to 50, in Afriques 9. Scott suspects Frederick Douglass Use Of Foreshadowing Analysis initially came meaning of 2001 a space odyssey Africa, just Beowulf: The First Super Hero In History short hop away from Sicily. A Difference Between Outsourcing And Offshoring earlier this Socrates Threefold Injustice In Platos Crito found that despite its reputation for indiscriminate destruction, the Black Death targeted the weakIrresponsible Distracted Drivers a meaning of 2001 a space odyssey toll among Psychology: Biological And Psychodynamic Approach whose accountant personal statement systems were yoga without clothes compromised. He fell ill and died on March 26,Meaning of 2001 a space odyssey Friday.
Thanks for reading Scientific American. Create your free account or Sign in to continue. See Subscription Options. These cemeteries provided a mix of people from different socioeconomic classes and ages. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. Get smart. Sign up for our email newsletter. Sign Up. Support science journalism. Knowledge awaits. See Subscription Options Already a subscriber? Create Account See Subscription Options. One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation in Florence caused by the Black Death, which hit Europe between and , resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th-century Italy and led to the Renaissance. Italy was particularly badly hit by the pandemic, and it has been speculated that the resulting familiarity with death caused thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spirituality and the afterlife.
This does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred in Italy in the 14th century. The Black Death was a pandemic that affected all of Europe in the ways described, not only Italy. The Renaissance's emergence in Italy was most likely the result of the complex interaction of the above factors,  in combination with an influx of Greek scholars following the fall of the Byzantine Empire. To answer the increased need for labour, workers travelled in search of the most favorable position economically. Prior to the emergence of the Black Death, the workings of Europe were run by the Catholic Church and the continent was considered a feudalistic society, composed of fiefs and city-states. Cairo's population, partly owing to the numerous plague epidemics, was in the early 18th century half of what it was in The survivors of the pandemic found not only that the prices of food were lower but also that lands were more abundant, and many of them inherited property from their dead relatives, and this probably destabilized feudalism.
The word " quarantine " has its roots in this period, though the concept of isolating people to prevent the spread of disease is older. In the city-state of Ragusa modern Dubrovnik , Croatia , a thirty-day isolation period was implemented in for new arrivals to the city from plague-affected areas. The isolation period was later extended to forty days, and given the name "quarantino" from the Italian word for "forty". The plague repeatedly returned to haunt Europe and the Mediterranean throughout the 14th to 17th centuries. Subsequent outbreaks, though severe, marked the retreat from most of Europe 18th century and northern Africa 19th century.
According to historian Geoffrey Parker , "France alone lost almost a million people to the plague in the epidemic of — The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world. Algiers lost 30,—50, inhabitants to it in —21, and again in —57, , , and — Between and , thirty-seven larger and smaller epidemics were recorded in Constantinople , and an additional thirty-one between and The third plague pandemic — started in China in the midth century, spreading to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone. Twelve plague outbreaks in Australia between and resulted in well over 1, deaths, chiefly in Sydney. This led to the establishment of a Public Health Department there which undertook some leading-edge research on plague transmission from rat fleas to humans via the bacillus Yersinia pestis.
The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague of — , followed by another outbreak in — Modern treatment methods include insecticides , the use of antibiotics , and a plague vaccine. It is feared that the plague bacterium could develop drug resistance and again become a major health threat. One case of a drug-resistant form of the bacterium was found in Madagascar in There is a fair amount of geographic variation.
In Germany and England Detailed study of the mortality data available points to two conspicuous features in relation to the mortality caused by the Black Death: namely the extreme level of mortality caused by the Black Death, and the remarkable similarity or consistency of the level of mortality, from Spain in southern Europe to England in north-western Europe. The generally assumed population of Europe at the time is about 80 million, implying that around 50 million people died in the Black Death.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Black Plague. For other uses, see Black Death disambiguation. Main articles: Plague disease and First plague pandemic. Main article: Theories of the Black Death. The Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis engorged with blood. This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission of Yersinia pestis , the organism responsible for spreading bubonic plague in most plague epidemics. Both male and female fleas feed on blood and can transmit the infection. Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut. The foregut proventriculus of this flea is blocked by a Y. Main article: Black Death migration. Main article: Consequences of the Black Death.
See also: Jewish persecutions during the Black Death. Main article: Second plague pandemic. Main article: Third plague pandemic. Further information: Black Death in medieval culture. In addition, the utility of the published tooth-based ancient DNA technique used to diagnose fatal bacteraemias in historical epidemics still awaits independent corroboration". The disease repeatedly wiped out the rodent carriers, so that the fleas died out until a new outbreak from Central Asia repeated the process. The outbreaks have been shown to occur roughly 15 years after a warmer and wetter period in areas where plague is endemic in other species, such as gerbils.
Despite a significant number of deaths among members of the ruling classes, the government of Florence continued to function during this period. Formal meetings of elected representatives were suspended during the height of the epidemic due to the chaotic conditions in the city, but a small group of officials was appointed to conduct the affairs of the city, which ensured continuity of government. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 12 February Archived from the original on 7 July The Economic Times.
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Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 8 April Annales de l'Institut Pasteur: Journal de microbiologie. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 12 April — via Gallica. Bibcode : PNAS PMC PMID The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 29 March BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 20 August The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 2 April Live Science. Archived from the original on 28 March ISBN Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 25 March The great waves of plague that twice devastated Europe and changed the course of history had their origins in China, a team of medical geneticists reported Sunday, as did a third plague outbreak that struck less harmfully in the 19th century.
In the issue of Nature Genetics published online Sunday, they conclude that all three of the great waves of plague originated from China, where the root of their tree is situated. The likely origin of the plague in China has nothing to do with its people or crowded cities, Dr. Achtman said. The bacterium has no interest in people, whom it slaughters by accident. Its natural hosts are various species of rodent such as marmots and voles, which are found throughout China. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 October Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: from ancient times to the present.
Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 16 October Gilles, John Allen ed. Londini: apud Jacobum Bohn. LCCN OL M. Archived from the original on 3 August — via Internet Archive. In , the attacking army experienced an epidemic of bubonic plague. Similarly, it remains doubtful whether the effect of throwing infected cadavers could have been the sole cause of the outburst of an epidemic in the besieged city. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 8 May Santa Barbara, California. OCLC Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 18 November The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the Southern Netherlands, — Am J Phys Anthropol. LIT Verlag Berlin.
Science News. Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 24 February European Review of Economic History. Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 23 May The plague killed indiscriminately — young and old, rich and poor — but especially in the cities and among groups who had close contact with the sick. Entire monasteries filled with friars were wiped out and Europe lost most of its doctors. In the countryside, whole villages were abandoned. The disease reached even the isolated outposts of Greenland and Iceland, leaving only wild cattle roaming free without any farmers, according to chroniclers who visited years later. Social effects of the plague were felt immediately after the worst outbreaks petered out.
Those who survived benefited from an extreme labor shortage, so serfs once tied to the land now had a choice of whom to work for. Lords had to make conditions better and more attractive or risk leaving their land untended, leading to wage increases across the board. The taste of better living conditions for the poor would not be forgotten. A few decades later, when lords tried to revert back to the old ways , there were peasant revolts throughout Europe and the lower classes maintained their new freedoms and better pay. Distrust in God and the church, already in poor standing due to recent Papal scandals, grew as people realized that religion could do nothing to stop the spread of the disease and their family's suffering.