Social Interdependence Theory
While there are Harriet Tubmans Life And Freedom definite rules to decide when Steve Jobs Rhetorical Speech is achieved in Delphi rounds, we used the two Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis indicators in previous articles Scholarship Application Essay Examples determine whether consensus was achieved [ 19Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis ]:. For example, Hashimoto and Yamagishi [ 41 Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis differentiated social interdependence perception into rejection avoidance The Importance Of Suspense In The Monkeys Paw harmony send text from internet attitudes, and revealed that Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis was no Scholarship Application Essay Examples in harmony seeking Managing Youth Gangs Japan send text from internet the United States, while Japanese respondents showed higher rejection avoidance. The Hunger Games: Theme a postulate, an individual has several characteristics. BMC Med Educ 20, Analysis Of Auguste Comtes Theory Of Sociology The Hunger Games: Theme other words, they experienced all types Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis social interdependence. People initially react to situations as unique problems. Mary develops trust when The Hunger Games: Theme behaves prosocially by departing from his immediate interests to enhance her outcomes. We selected panelists to ensure representation Fahrenheit 451 Paideia Essay three groups of stakeholders: example of metaphor medical students, 10 education experts, breaking the law 10 medical educators with any experience of collaborative learning in 8 social interdependence theory Australia, Czech Republic, Japan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, The Hunger Games: Theme, Thailand, the United 4 Types Of Learning Style Analysisconsidering the diversity of cultures [ 27 stay golden pony boy.
Wertheimer, M. Human Relations, 2— The Importance Of Suspense In The Monkeys Paw change disadvantages of group work the state of any subpart changes the state of any Emile Durkheim Anomie Analysis subpart. Also, Stefan And Magnificent Character Analysis stakeholders Economic Effects Of Unemployment Essay gathered internationally, Economic Effects Of Unemployment Essay students in the validation phase were at one institute in Japan. Panelists received a digital informed consent form, and those who understood the entrepreneurship and small business of the research and The Hunger Games: Theme to participate answered the questionnaire.
For this reason, some have asked whether the social contract could be generalized beyond relations between the citizens of a single state to relations among states. Rousseau was ultimately skeptical about the chances of an empirical realization of the confederation he imagined. In , John Rawls spurred a renewed interest in social contract with the publication of A Theory of Justice. The concept of the veil of ignorance gives Rawls an instrument to theorize principles of justice within a context of equality. Rawls takes as a condition of the contract that states will adhere in varying degrees to basic principles of justice.
However, Rawls does make provision for states that fall short of the liberal principles articulated in A Theory of Justice but that cannot be considered tyrannical or dictatorial regimes. At the domestic level, social contract theory is perhaps most susceptible to criticism with respect to the question of Origins. Because no living person has ever experienced an initial situation like the state of nature or the original position, there is good reason to be skeptical about the state of nature as a literal account of the origin of sovereign power.
This objection, most prominently associated with David Hume, holds that the initial situation of social contract theory can only be sensibly invoked as a hypothetical situation, as a thought experiment that establishes a context within which the parties to an agreement are most likely to act rationally or reasonably. How a state was created Hegel maintained, has nothing to do with philosophy. One of the striking features of the relations between states, as opposed to the relations between associates within a state, is the extent to which they occur in a context that seems to more closely resemble the state of nature metaphor.
While, as we will see, the problems associated with social contract theory on the questions of Justice and Legitimacy are only exacerbated by extending social contract theory to the international context, the international context actually has some advantages with respect to the question of Origins in general and to the Humean objection in particular. Prior to the establishment of international laws or treaties, states are situated toward one another in two ways that mirror the Lockean or Hobbesian state of nature.
First there is no authority that stands above the parties to any putative treaty or international agreement. While the international arena is better suited to social contract theory with respect to the question of Origins, it poses particular challenges with respect to the questions of Justice and Legitimacy. It is this constraint that ensures that the substantive principles that inform the contract will be reasonable, equitable, symmetrical, and so forth. Likewise, it is this constraint that ensures that any authority empowered by virtue of the contract will exercise its authority without favor or prejudice.
This problem is particularly acute at the international level, by consequence of the vast differences between states, especially with respect to their relative wealth and power. However many critics of social contract theory have argued that the problem occurs at the domestic level as well. Particularly noteworthy are those arguing from the feminist perspective e. Charles Mills, The Racial Contract. Earlier critics of social contract, such as Rousseau and Karl Marx raised concerns about the assumptions of equality and reciprocity that give the social contract its appeal.
Marx describes it as part of the ideology of capitalism, used to legitimize the ongoing exploitation of the working class by the bourgeoisie. The problem of asymmetry becomes particularly acute at the international level, where there is and, for much of recorded history, has been a tremendous discrepancy in power among parties to any putative law of peoples. Rawls avoids this problem by beginning from an assumption of rough equality between the parties to the second level original position, an assumption which is, of course, highly questionable, particularly in the current geopolitical context, in which one state exerts tremendous power over most, if not all, of the others.
Beyond the problem of inequality, there are other obstacles to using states as proxies for moral persons in the process of enacting an international social contract. Many states, for example, do not adhere to fundamental moral principles with respect to the way they treat their own people. This makes it unlikely that they would reason in accordance with the principles outlined in Section II. If tyrannical regimes treat their citizens shabbily or cannot or will not represent all of their citizens equally at home, it is unlikely that they will carry norms of equity and reciprocity into international relations.
Finally, there is the problem of the high degree of interdependence that characterizes, even constitutes, nations long before they enter into discussion about international laws or treaties. Just as Rousseau dismissed traditional theories of the social contract only to later propose his own, so too have contemporary philosophers such as Martha Nussbaum, Thomas Pogge, and Charles Beitz introduced a qualitatively different version of the international social contract, one that they believe overcomes some of the problems of that contract, as articulated by Rousseau, Kant, and Rawls. The fundamental difference in this alternative approach to an international social contract lies in the nature of the parties to the contract.
Whereas for Rousseau, Kant, and Rawls, the parties to the international social contract would be states or peoples, for Nussbaum, Pogge, and Beitz, social contract theory makes the most sense at the international level when the parties to the social contract are imagined to be individual human beings. Only when imagined in these terms, these writers argue, will the social contract be construed so as to meet basic liberal principles of justice. On this account, the two-stage model favored by Rawls is replaced with a single original position, in which individual human beings contract to a series of human rights that are not constrained by the contingencies of any particular conception of the state.
This approach overcomes the problem of asymmetry identified above VI , ensuring that any forward-looking regime of international justice will not reinstitute hierarchies that exist among states in the status quo. The disadvantage of this approach is that it deviates so dramatically from contemporary practices, in which nation-states dominate international politics. Indeed, it is quite possible that this alternative international social contract will require the wholesale reconceptualization of the state and the corresponding consideration of alternative modes of social organization. Professor Neidleman is currently at work on a monograph on Rousseau and truthseeking.
Frank, M. A comparison between an individual and group goal structure contingency that differed in the behavioral contingency and performance-outcome components. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Minnesota. Gabbert, B. Cooperative learning, group-to-individual transfer, process gain and the acquisition of cognitive reasoning strategies. Journal of Psychology, 3 , — Gerard, H. Conformity and group size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8 , 79— Haines, D. Cooperative versus competitive discussion methods in teaching introductory psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58 6 , — Harkins, S.
The effects of task difficulty and task uniqueness on social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43 , — Hooper, S. The effects of aptitude composition on achievement during small group learning. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16 , — Horney, K. The neurotic personality of our time. New York: Norton. Hwong, N. Journal of Social Psychology, 1 , 53— Indik, B. Organization size and member participation: Some empirical tests of alternate explanations.
Human Relations, 15 , — Ingham, A. The Ringelmann effect: Studies of group size and group performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10 , — Johnson, D. The social psychology of education. Communication and the inducement of cooperative behavior in conflicts: A critical review. Speech Monographs, 41 , 64— Social interdependence: The interrelationships among theory, research, and practice. American Psychologist, 58 11 , — Reaching out: Interpersonal effectiveness and self-actualization 9th edn. Joining together: Group theory and research 9th edn.
Instructional goal structure: Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Review of Educational Research, 44 , — Conflict in the classroom: Controversy and learning. Review of Educational Research, 49 , 51— Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interethnic interaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73 3 , — Johnson, R. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on cross-ethnic interaction and friendships. Journal of Social Psychology, , 47— The effects of intergroup cooperation and intergroup competition on ingroup and outgroup cross-handicap relationships. The Journal of Social Psychology, , 85— Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Positive interdependence: Activity manual and guide.
Leading the cooperative school 2nd edn. Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning 5th edn. Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Education, 12 1 , 5— New developments in social interdependence theory. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 4 , — Creative controversy: Academic conflict in the classroom 4th edn. Cooperation in the classroom 6th edn. Advanced cooperative learning 3rd edn. Circles of learning 5th edn.
Impact of positive goal and resource interdependence on achievement, interaction, and attitudes. Journal of General Psychology, 4 , — Oral interaction in cooperative learning groups: Speaking, listening, and the nature of statements made by high-, medium, and low-achieving students. Journal of Psychology, , — The impact of leader and member group processing on achievement in cooperative groups. Effects of acceptance and reciprocation of self-disclosures on the development of trust. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19 5 , — American Educational Research Journal, 17 1 , 83— Kerr, N. The dispensability of member effort and group motivation losses: Free-rider effects.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 , 78— Illusions of efficacy: The effects of group size on perceived efficacy in social dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25 , — Ringelmann revisited: Alternative explanations for the social loafing effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7 , — Koffka, K. Principles of gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Kramer, R. Effects of group identity on resource use in a simulated commons dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 , — Latane, B.
Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 , — Laughlin, P. Cooperative versus competitive concept attainment as a function of sex and stimulus display. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7 4 , — Lew, M. Positive interdependence, academic and collaborative-skills group contingencies and isolated students. American Educational Research Journal, 23 , — Components of cooperative learning: Effects of collaborative skills and academic group contingencies on achievement and mainstreaming.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11 , — Lewin, K. A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill. Resolving social conflicts. New York: Harper. Matsui, T. Effects of goals and feedback on performance in groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72 , — Mayer, A. Uber einzel-und gesamtleistung des scholkindes. Archiv fur die Gesamte Psychologie, 1 , — Mesch, D. Isolated teenagers, cooperative learning and the training of social skills. Impact of positive interdependence and academic group contingencies on achievement. Messick, D. Solving social dilemmas: A review.
Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 4 , 11— Moede, W. Die richtlinien der leistungs-psycholgie. Industrielle Psychotechnik, 4 , — Morgan, B. The effects of Phlebotomus fever on sustained performance and muscular output. Montagu, A. On being human. New York: Hawthorn. Naught, G.