Gait Recognition Research Paper

Thursday, February 24, 2022 12:03:22 PM

Gait Recognition Research Paper

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More info. Nine updates have been logged for this article since publication All PainScience. Like good footnotes, this sets PainScience. Although footnotes are more useful , the update logs are important. I log any change to articles that might be of interest to a keen reader. Complete update logging of all noteworthy improvements to all articles started in Prior to that, I only logged major updates for the most popular and controversial articles. This was a large review of previously published research about the use of custom foot orthoses for the treatment of various kinds of foot pain.

Foot orthotics are made from basic measurements and captured images of the foot plaster casting, foam box impressions, or three-dimensional computer images. Skilled 3D computer imaging may be the most accurate. Basic measurement is particularly inaccurate. So most Pods here tend to be more biomechanically focused, and more interested in a holistic approach to musculoskeletal health.

We have the option of surgery, but it requires considerable post graduate training. My own training allows me to undertake superficial surgery i. Source: Stedmans Electronic Medical Dictionary. Tendinopathy and tendinosis are often used to avoid the implication of inflammation that is baked into the term tendinitis, because the condition involves no signs of gross, acute inflammation. So tendinitis remains a fair label, and much more familiar to patients to boot. This is a meticulous, sensible, and readable analysis of the very best studies of back pain treatments that have ever been done: the greatest hits of back pain science. They do a good job of explaining exactly how and why they picked the studies they did, and pre-emptively defending it from a couple common concerns.

This classic, elegant experiment found no connection between leg length and back pain. Signs of degeneration are present in high percentages of healthy people with no symptoms. In other words, abnormalities matter less than many patients and professionals still assume, but they still do matter. This trial tested the efficacy of shoe orthotics and chiropractic treatment for chronic low back pain. Wait-list groups are a crappy control. This is a major flaw. As Dr. The lack of a true placebo control is a deal-breaker here, especially put in the context of other studies of orthotics for back pain, which are negative e. And why would they be good only for a first injury?

Makes no sense, therefore likely not true. A good quality controlled test of customized orthotics for Achilles tendinitis, compared to a sham of off-the-shelf orthotics. This is a solid, straightforward design, and it has plenty of statistical power, with subjects in two groups. The report on it was even refreshingly well-written. So this is a rare case of a study that actually produced a persuasive answer, instead of just more low quality evidence that has to be taken with a huge grain of salt.

They checked up on everyone at intervals for a year, and found no difference at any point. This is the kind of conclusion that orthotics makers really do not want anyone to know about. Achilles tendinitis is exactly the kind of condition that custom orthotics can supposedly treat, and failing this test so completely is really damning for that industry. Do runners with anatomical quirks get more injuries than symmetrical and aligned runners? It was the right kind of study prospective , but perhaps a bit underpowered with only 89 subjects and just 12 weeks of monitoring for new injuries. I wish I could see the same data for a couple hundred runners over six months. Subtle vulnerabilities might take quite a while to crop up, particularly in runners who have already gotten through at least six months without any injury.

Still, 24 of these runners did get injured in those twelve weeks — which is a lot! Surprise surprise. These things are mostly impossible to fix anyway. Do running shoes have positive or negative impacts on joints? Researchers analyzed peak joint forces in barefoot walking versus three different types of shoes: stability, motion control, and cushion. I waited a long time for this one: at last, the first prospective comparison of injury rates in shod versus barefoot running.

The results are clear and unsurprising: there was no important difference in injury rates, just the types of injuries. Each is better in some ways, worse in others. Naturally, a larger, longer study may have different results. But this is an excellent start, and we can now say with high confidence that barefoot running is not a panacea for running injuries. As of the end of , there were only about 18 decent experiments, with too many differences between them to clearly interpret.

A review of these by van der Worp et al concluded just a single specific link stress fractures ; otherwise they reported only a broad association between higher loading rates and runners with all kinds of injuries but none in particular. How one Facebook worker unfriended the giant social network When a year-old data scientist went before Congress to accuse Facebook of pursuing profit over safety, it was likely the most consequential choice of her life. Marie Antoinette's censored letters decoded using X-rays " New river of lava threatens even more buildings on La Palma A new river of lava has belched out from the La Palma volcano, spreading more destruction on the Atlantic Ocean island where molten rock streams have already engulfed over 1, buildings.

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Local officials say strong earthquake in Pakistan has killed at least 11 people, injured Local officials say strong earthquake in Pakistan has killed at least 11 people, injured In this case, the result of a misidentification could be that an innocent person is treated as a violent fugitive and approached by the police with weapons drawn or even goes to jail, so the system should be designed to have as few false positives as possible. Technical issues endemic to all face recognition systems mean false positives will continue to be a common problem for the foreseeable future.

Face recognition technologies perform well when all the photographs are taken with similar lighting and from a frontal perspective like a mug shot. However, when photographs that are compared to one another contain different lighting, shadows, backgrounds, poses, or expressions, the error rates can be significant. Finally, it is also less accurate with large age discrepancies for example, if people are compared against a photo taken of themselves when they were ten years younger. Some proposed uses of face recognition would clearly impact Fourth Amendment rights and First Amendment-protected activities and would chill speech. Like other biometrics programs that collect, store, share, and combine sensitive and unique data, face recognition technology poses critical threats to privacy and civil liberties.

Face recognition, though, takes the risks inherent in other biometrics to a new level because it is much more difficult to prevent the collection of an image of your face. We expose our faces to public view every time we go outside, and many of us share images of our faces online with almost no restrictions on who may access them. Face recognition therefore allows for covert, remote, and mass capture and identification of images.

Law enforcement has already used face recognition technology at political protests. Marketing materials from the social media monitoring company Geofeedia bragged that, during the protests surrounding the death of Freddie Gray while in police custody, the Baltimore Police Department ran social media photos against a face recognition database to identify protesters and arrest them. In , a study involving Muslims in New York and New Jersey found that excessive police surveillance in Muslim communities had a significant chilling effect on First Amendment-protected activities. People were also less likely to engage with others in their community who they did not know for fear any such person could either be a government informant or a radical.

Parents discouraged their children from participating in Muslim social, religious, or political movements. Business owners took conscious steps to mute political discussion by turning off Al-Jazeera in their stores, and activists self-censored their comments on Facebook. These examples show the real risks to First Amendment-protected speech and activities from excessive government surveillance—especially when that speech represents a minority or disfavored viewpoint.

While we do not yet appear to be at the point where face recognition is being used broadly to monitor the public, we are at a stage where the government is building the databases to make that monitoring possible. We must place meaningful checks on government use of face recognition now before we reach a point of no return. The false-positive risks discussed above will likely disproportionately impact African Americans and other people of color.

False positives can alter the traditional presumption of innocence in criminal cases by placing more of a burden on suspects and defendants to show they are not who the system identifies them to be. This is true even if a face recognition system offers several results for a search instead of one; each of the people identified could be brought in for questioning, even if there is nothing else linking them to the crime.

Face recognition accuracy problems also unfairly impact African American and minority job seekers who must submit to background checks. Even if job seekers are properly matched to a criminal mug shot, minority job seekers will be disproportionately impacted due to the notorious unreliability of FBI records as a whole. If these arrest records are not updated with final disposition information, hundreds of thousands of Americans searching for jobs could be prejudiced and lose work.

Due to disproportionately high arrest rates, this uniquely impacts people of color. All government data is at risk of breach and misuse by insiders and outsiders. However, the results of a breach of face recognition or other biometric data could be far worse than other identifying data, because our biometrics are unique to us and cannot easily be changed. The many recent security breaches, email hacks, and reports of falsified data—including biometric data—show that the government needs extremely rigorous security measures and audit systems in place to protect against data loss.

In , hackers took over of Washington D. This means that software components and configuration are likely standardized across all systems, so one successful breach could threaten the integrity of data in all databases. Vulnerabilities exist from insider threats as well. Past examples of improper and unlawful police use of driver and vehicle data suggest face recognition data will also be misused. Many of the recorded examples of database and surveillance misuse involve male officers targeting women. For example, the AP study found officers took advantage of access to confidential information to stalk ex-girlfriends and look up home addresses of women they found attractive.

It is unclear what, if anything federal and state agencies have done to improve the security of their systems and prevent insider abuse. With FBI acting as a national repository for law enforcement face recognition data, it is important to look closely at its flaws, in particular its inaccuracy, lack of transparency and oversight, and unclear scope. The reports chastised FBI for being less than transparent with the public about its face recognition programs and security issues. Each of the biometric identifiers in NGI is linked to personal, biographic, and identifying information, and, where possible, each file includes multiple biometric identifiers.

NGI incorporates both criminal and civil records. It also includes biometric data collected as part of a background check or state licensing requirement for many types of jobs, including, depending on the state, licensing to be a dentist, accountant, teacher, geologist, realtor, lawyer, or optometrist. As of December , NGI included more than 74 million biometric records in the criminal repository and over The states have been very involved in the development and use of the NGI database.

NGI includes more than 20 million civil and criminal images received directly from at least six states, including California, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Texas, and Virginia. As of December , FBI was working with eight more states to grant them access to NGI, and an additional 24 states were also interested. The GAO report disclosed for the first time that FBI had access to over million face recognition images—hundreds of millions more than journalists and privacy advocates had been able to estimate before that.

This number increased to million by the time GAO issued its second report in This is an unprecedented number of photographs, most of which were collected under civil and not criminal circumstances. Under never-disclosed agreements between FBI and its state and federal partners, 54 FBI may search these civil photos whenever it is trying to find a suspect in a crime. Further, it has not taken any steps to determine whether the face recognition systems of its external partners—states and other federal agencies—are sufficiently accurate to prevent innocent people from being identified as criminal suspects. Does NGI still return possible matches? FBI also has never tested to determine detection rates where the size of the responsive candidate pool is reduced to a number below When false positives represent real people who may become suspects in a criminal investigation, the number of false positives a system generates is especially important.

For example, face recognition performs worse overall as the size of the database increases, in part because so many people within a given population look similar to one another. Face recognition is also extremely challenging at low image resolutions. Research has shown that, without specialized training, humans may be worse at identification than a computer algorithm. That is especially true when the subject is someone they do not already know or someone of a race or ethnicity different from their own.

Despite going live with NGI in increments since at least , FBI has failed to release basic information about its system, including information mandated by federal law, that would have informed the public about what data FBI has been collecting and how that data is being used and protected. The federal Privacy Act of and the E-Government Act of require agencies to address the privacy implications of any system that collects identifiable information on the public. The E-Government Act requires agencies to conduct Privacy Impact Assessments PIAs for all programs that collect information on the public and notify the public about why the information is being collected, the intended use of the information, with whom the information will be shared, and how the information will be secured.

They allow the public to see how new government programs and technology affect their privacy and assess whether the government has done enough to mitigate the privacy risks. FBI complied with these requirements when it began developing its face recognition program in by issuing a PIA for the program that same year. However, as the Bureau updated its plans for face recognition, it failed to update its PIA, despite calls from Congress and members of the privacy advocacy community to do so. The GAO report specifically faulted FBI for amassing, using, and sharing its face recognition technologies without ever explaining the privacy implications of its actions to the public.

As GAO noted, the whole point of a PIA is to give the public notice of the privacy implications of data collection programs and to ensure that privacy protections are built into the system from the start. FBI failed to do this. For example, a Request for Proposals that FBI released in indicated the agency planned to allow law enforcement officers to use mobile devices to collect face recognition data out in the field and submit that data directly to NGI. As we have seen with state and local agencies that have already begun using mobile biometric devices, officers may use such devices in ways that push the limits of and in some cases directly contradict constitutional law.

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