Effects Of The Second Industrial Revolution Essay
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SS.912.A.3.2 Causes of the Second Industrial Revolution
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In addition to the above structure, there are a series of pages to help teacher and students. This project is both very large and fairly old in Internet terms. At the time it was begun , it was not clear that web sites [and the documents made available there] would often turn out to be transient. As a result there is a process called "link rot" - which means that a "broken link" is a result of someone having taken down a web page.
In some cases some websites have simply reorganized sub-directories without creating forwarding links. Since , very few links to external sites have been made. An effort is under way to remove bad links. All links to documents marked [at IHSP] should be working. Alternately, a search via Google may locate another site where the document is available. Subjects covered by the source texts in each Section. The Early Modern World.
The Internet Modern History Sourcebook is one of series of history primary sourcebooks. It is intended to serve the needs of teachers and students in college survey courses in modern European history and American history, as well as in modern Western Civilization and World Cultures. Although this part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project began as a way to access texts that were already available on the Internet, it now contains hundreds of texts made available locally.
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These have also been regularized in a consistent hierarchy. This should allow rapid review of where texts are. Implicit in the use of the word traditional is the assumption that the art which it describes is static and unchanging. For them, pre-colonial objects have an aura of an untainted, timeless past when artists only made artworks for their own communities unaffected by the outside world. These objects are too often seen in opposition to work produced today using Western materials and conventions by artists who are engaged in a global discourse and who make works of art to be sold. In reality, some African art has always functioned as a commodity and artists have always drawn inspiration and materials from outside sources.
Looking closer, scholars find that specific historical moments had a profound affect on African communities and their art. During the slave trade and colonization, for example, some artists created work to come to terms with these horrific events—experiences that often stripped people of their cultural, religious and political identities. One of the most damaging experiences for many ethnic groups in Africa was the transatlantic slave trade.
While slavery had long existed in Africa, the transatlantic slave trade constituted a mass movement of peoples over four and a half centuries to colonies in North and South America. Ten million people were taken to labor on cotton, rum, and sugar plantations in the new world. Slavery coupled with the colonial experience had a profound effect on Africa and still causes strife. For example, Ghana has over 80 ethnic groups and during slave raids, different groups were pitted against one another—those living near the coast were involved in slave raiding in the interior in exchange for Portuguese and Dutch guns.
Territorial disputes, poverty, famine, corruption, and disease increased as a result of the brutality of the slave trade and European colonization. With the collapse of the Atlantic slave trade in the 19th century, European imperialism continued to focus on Africa as a source for raw materials and markets for the goods produced by industrialized nations.
Africa was partitioned by the European powers during the Berlin Conference of , a meeting where not a single African was present. The result was a continent defined by artificial borders with little concern for existing ethnic, linguistic, or geographic realities. European nations claimed land in order to secure access to the natural resources they needed to support rapidly growing industrial economies. Once European nations secured African territories, they embarked on a system of governance that enforced the provision of natural resources— with dire consequences for people and the environment. Resistance to colonial rule grew steadily and between and , 47 nations achieved independence; but even with independence the problems associated with the slave trade and colonialism remained.
The introduction of Christianity and the spread of Islam in the 19th and 20th century also transformed many African societies and many traditional art practices associated with indigenous religions declined. In addition, as imported manufactured goods entered local economies, hand-made objects like ceramic vessels and fiber baskets were replaced by factory-made containers. Nevertheless, one way people made sense of these changes was through art and performance. Art plays a central role, particularly in oral societies, as a way to remember and heal. As African artists began catering to a new market of middle-class urban Africans and foreigners, new art-making practices developed.
Self-taught and academically trained painters, for example, began depicting their experiences with colonialism and independence; as fine artists, their work is largely secular in content and meant to be displayed in galleries or modern homes for example, see the work of Cheri Samba , Jane Alexander , and Tshibumba Kanda-Matulu.