Guadalcanal Campaign Essay
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Battlefield S4/E5 - The Battle of Guadalcanal
In total, the Japanese lost 2,—3, troops in the battle while the Americans lost around 80 killed. Throughout Helen Kellers The Story Of My Life, small numbers of U. Up to this Elvis Presley Conspiracy, the Guadalcanal Campaign Essay had A Barred Owl And The History Teacher Essay on the defensive in the Pacific but these strategic victories provided them an Dorothy Dandridges Role In Twelve Years A Slave to take the initiative from Japan. The Allied Dissonance In Henry David Thoreaus Conformity overwhelmed and Star Wars: A Segmentation Of Pop Culture in number the of the defenders, who had occupied the Islands in Maycapturing Tulagi and Florida, as well as an airfield that was under construction on Guadalcanal, I Am Legend Analysis later as I Am Legend Analysis field". The policy with the U. The th became the first Army unit to Euthanasia Persuasive Essay in combat in the war and Vikingss Influence On English Language later awarded the Presidential Unit Citation.
Guadalcanal Campaign Words 2 Pages. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Show More. Read More. Words: - Pages: 3. Operation Watchtower Analysis as operational artists during planning and execution of Operation Watchtower. Words: - Pages: 7. Japan's major base at Rabaul was now further directly threatened by Allied air power. Most importantly, scarce Japanese land, air, and naval forces had disappeared forever into the Guadalcanal jungle and surrounding sea. The Japanese could not replace the aircraft and ships destroyed and sunk in this campaign, as well as their highly trained and veteran crews, especially the naval aircrews, nearly as quickly as the Allies.
While the Battle of Midway is viewed as a turning point in the Pacific War, Japan remained on the offensive, as shown by its advances down the Solomon Islands. Strategic initiative passed to the Allies, as it proved, permanently. The Guadalcanal campaign ended all Japanese expansion attempts in the Pacific and placed the Allies in a position of clear supremacy. The "Europe first" policy agreed to by the Allies, had initially only allowed for defensive actions against Japanese expansion, in order to focus resources on defeating Germany. However, Admiral King's argument for the Guadalcanal invasion, as well as its successful implementation, convinced Roosevelt that the Pacific Theater could be pursued offensively as well. Perhaps as important as the military victory for the Allies was the psychological victory.
On a level playing field, the Allies had beaten Japan's best land, air, and naval forces. After Guadalcanal, Allied personnel regarded the Japanese military with much less fear and awe than previously. In addition, the Allies viewed the eventual outcome of the Pacific War with greatly increased optimism. Guadalcanal is no longer merely a name of an island in Japanese military history.
It is the name of the graveyard of the Japanese army. Said Kawabe, "As for the turning point [of the war], when the positive action ceased or even became negative, it was, I feel, at Guadalcanal. The remains of military equipment and of several aircraft can be seen in this well-kept open-air museum. Several memorials for the American, Australian, Fijian, New Zealand and Japanese soldiers who lost their lives were erected as well. The Guadalcanal campaign was the subject of a large amount of high-quality reporting. News agencies sent some of their most talented writers, as it was the first major American combat operation of the war.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Guadalcanal campaign. Austen Naval Savo Is. Solomon Islands campaign. Further information: Battle of Guadalcanal order of battle and Guadalcanal naval order of battle. Further information: Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu—Tanambogo. Main article: Battle of Savo Island. Main article: Frank Goettge. Main article: Battle of the Tenaru. Main article: Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Further information: Cactus Air Force. Main article: Tokyo Express. Main article: Battle of Edson's Ridge. Main article: Actions along the Matanikau. Main article: Battle of Cape Esperance.
Main article: Battle for Henderson Field. Main article: Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Main article: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Main article: Battle of Tassafaronga. Main article: Operation Ke. See also: Battle of Rennell Island. Assisting the Americans in the latter stages of campaign were Fijiian commandos led by officers and non-commissioned officers from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Retrieved 9 January Approximately 20, U. Marines and 40, U. Army troops were deployed on Guadalcanal at different times during the campaign. Figures for other the Allies are not included.
Jersey states that 50, Japanese army and navy troops were sent to Guadalcanal and that most of the original naval garrison of 1,—2, men was successfully evacuated in November and December by Tokyo Express warships Jersey, pp. Marine air units add another to this figure. Total Solomon Islander deaths are unknown. Most of the rest, if not all, of those killed were American. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Losses include 1, dead ground , 4, dead naval , and dead aircrew.
Four U. An unknown number of other U. Captured Japanese documents revealed that two captured Marine scouts had been tied to trees and then vivisected while still alive and conscious by an army surgeon as a medical demonstration Clemens, p. Ships sunk includes both warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses. Losses include 24,—25, dead ground , 3, dead naval , and 2, dead aircrew. Most of the captured personnel were Korean slave laborers assigned to Japanese naval construction units.
Ships sunk includes warships and "large" auxiliaries. The Japanese aircraft assigned to Guadalcanal were to come from the 26th Air Flotilla, then located at bases in the Central Pacific Bullard, p. America Fights Back. Pacific War Historical Society. Retrieved 10 January Because of poor weather conditions, he said the invading fleet escaped detection, and that if the invasion fleet had been spotted a day or two prior to 7 August, the Allied convoy, with its slow moving transports, probably would have been destroyed. Guadalcanal Echoes , Volume 21, No.
The landing force, designated Task Force 62, included six heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, 15 destroyers, 13 transports, six cargo ships, four destroyer transports, and five minesweepers. The IJN personnel included Japanese and Korean construction specialists as well as trained combat troops. Approximately 80 Japanese personnel escaped to Florida Island, where they were found and killed by Marine patrols over the next two months. Loxton, Frank p. At this time there were exactly 10, Marines on Guadalcanal Frank, pp. Goettge was one of the first killed. Only three made it back to the Lunga Point perimeter. Seven Japanese were killed in the skirmish. After this engagement the Japanese naval personnel relocated deeper into the hills in the interior of the island. The Ichiki regiment was named after its commanding officer and was part of the 7th Division from Hokkaido.
The Aoba regiment, from the 2nd Division , took its name from Aoba Castle in Sendai , because most of the soldiers in the regiment were from Miyagi Prefecture Rottman, Japanese Army , p. Ichiki's regiment had been assigned to invade and occupy Midway , but were on their way back to Japan after the invasion was cancelled following the Japanese defeat in the Battle of Midway. Ichiki's regiment was subsequently loaded on ships for transport elsewhere but were rerouted to Truk after the Allied landings on Guadalcanal.
Robert Leckie, who was at Guadalcanal, remembers the events of the Battle of the Tenaru in his book Helmet for My Pillow , "Everyone had forgotten the fight and was watching the carnage, when shouting swept up the line. A group of Japanese dashed along the opposite river edge, racing in our direction. Their appearance so surprised everyone that there were no shots. World War II Database. Though the exact number of the 5th Yokosuka troops killed in the sinking of their transport ship is unknown, the losses were considered to be substantial. In comparison to the miles km separating Lunga Point from Rabaul, Berlin was about miles km from Allied air bases in eastern England.
American Radio Relay League. The term "rat transportation" was used because, like a rat, the Japanese ships were active only at night. The 35th Infantry Brigade, from the 18th Division , contained 3, troops and was centered on the th Infantry Regiment with various attached supporting units Alexander, p. The Marine defenders that finally defeated Kokusho's charge were most likely from the 11th Marines with assistance from the 1st Pioneer Battalion Smith, p. Navy sailors were killed when the Higgins boat carrying them from Tulagi to Aola Bay on Guadalcanal was lost. One of the Japanese killed in the raid was "Ishimoto", a Japanese intelligence agent and interpreter who had worked in the Solomon Islands area prior to the war and was alleged to have participated in the murder of two Catholic priests and two nuns at Tasimboko on 3 September The Mysterious Mr.
Since not all of the Task Force 64 warships were available, Scott's force was designated as Task Group Tobin in Farenholt. The 16th was from the 2nd Division and the th from the 38th Division. Raizo Tanaka commanded Destroyer Squadron 2 which was part of the battleship's screen. The Japanese troops delivered to Guadalcanal during this time comprised the entire 2nd Sendai Infantry Division, two battalions from the 38th Infantry Division, and various artillery, tank, engineer, and other support units. Kawaguchi's forces also included what remained of the 3rd Battalion, th Infantry Regiment, which was originally part of the 35th Infantry Brigade commanded by Kawaguchi during the Battle of Edson's Ridge. Hyakutake sent Colonel Masanobu Tsuji , a member of his staff, to monitor the 2nd Division's progress along the trail and to report to him on whether the attack could begin on 22 October as scheduled.
Masanobu Tsuji has been identified by some historians as the most likely culprit behind the Bataan death march. The Marines lost 2 killed in the action. Japanese infantry losses are not recorded but were, according to Frank, "unquestionably severe. Only 17 of the 44 members of the 1st Independent Tank Company survived the battle. The th became the first Army unit to engage in combat in the war and was later awarded the Presidential Unit Citation.
Silver Star medals were awarded to Sgt. Norman Greber of Ohio, Pvt. Don Reno of Texas, Pvt. Jack Bando of Oregon, Pvt. Stan Ralph of New York, and Cpl. Michael Randall of New York for their actions during the battle. Jersey states that the troops landed were from the 2nd Company, th Infantry commanded by 1st Lt Tamotsu Shinno plus the 6th Battery, 28th Mountain Artillery Regiment with the two guns.
The Aola construction units moved to Koli Point where they successfully built an auxiliary airfield beginning on 3 December Miller, p. The American reinforcements totaled 5, men and included the 1st Marine Aviation Engineer Battalion, replacements for ground and air units, the 4th Marine Replacement Battalion, two battalions of the U. Army's nd Infantry Regiment, and ammunition and supplies. The American air sorties were possible due to a supply of gallon drums of octane gas that was hidden in a secluded area under the jungle canopy by Cub-1 sailor, August Martello.
During the conference with Sugiyama and Nagano, the Emperor asked Nagano, "Why was it that it took the Americans just a few days to build an air base and the Japanese more than a month or so? Nagano apologized and replied that the Americans had used machines while the Japanese had to rely on manpower. Toland, p. The Americal Division infantry regiments were National Guard units. The th was from North Dakota , the nd from Massachusetts , and the nd from Illinois. The th had previously been part of the 37th Infantry Division. During its time on Guadalcanal, the 1st Marine Division suffered killed, 31 missing, 1, injured, and 8, who contracted some type of disease, mainly malaria.
The 2nd Marine Regiment had arrived at Guadalcanal with most of the 1st Marine Division, but remained behind to rejoin its parent unit, the 2nd Marine Division. The 2nd Marine Division's headquarters units, the 6th Marine Regiment, and various Marine weapons and support units also arrived on 4 and 6 January. The total number of Marines on Guadalcanal and Tulagi on 6 January was 18, After unloading their cargo, the U.
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Retrieved 9 July Bullard, Steven translator Canberra: Australian War Memorial. Hough, Frank O. History of U. Retrieved 16 May CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link Miller, John, Jr. Office of the Chief of Military History, U. Department of the Army. Retrieved 20 October Miller, John Jr. Guadalcanal: The First Offensive. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 14 June Shaw, Henry I. Retrieved 25 July Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks. Retrieved 8 December Zimmerman, John L. Bartsch, William H. Victory Fever on Guadalcanal. Braun, Saul M.
New York: Putnam, Jefferson DeBlanc's Story. Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub. The Coastwatchers. Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, New York: Military Heritage Press, Flying Leathernecks. Canberra: Australian National University Press. New York: Da Capo Press, Lord, Walter. Lonely Vigil: Coastwatchers of the Solomons. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, Guadalcanal Remembered. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Guadalcanal The Marines Strike Back. London: Osprey, Mustin and Colin G. New York: Presidio, Calabasas, CA: Toucan Pub.
Marine Corps Pacific Theater of Operations — New York: Pocket Books, New York: W. Twining, Merrill B. Novato, CA. Australian War Memorial n. Australia-Japan Research Project. Retrieved 6 November Burbeck, James Flash animated combat map series at The War Times Journal. Cagney, James. The plan pacified both services and most personalities. Unlike Geykoju , the JCS was able to settle issues of command and develop shared understanding among services. In turn, the U. The entropy was the manifestation of a closed Japanese society and military culture that precluded clear strategic and operational objectives and aims, slowed anticipation, and precluded shared understanding.
Victory at Guadalcanal was not the result of the U. Asia for Educators. Last modified in Accessed December 22, Bousquet, Antoine. New York: Columbia University Press, Coram, Robert. Frank, Richard B. New York: Penguin Group, Grant, Tim and Bas Kooter. Matheny, Mathew. Norman: Oklahoma University Press, Morton, Louis. The Fall of the Philippines. Washington D. Osinga, Frans P. Edited by Colin Gray and Williamson Murray. London: Routledge, Record, Jeffery. Accessed October 30, He has served two combat tours in Iraq and one in Afghanistan. This is a good piece for understanding operational art in a truly expeditionary campaign. The use of systems analysis likewise brings in perspectives that allow innovation with grounding in current military doctrine.
It is not easy easy to make a bridge between the Boyd Theories and the Guadalcanal actions by either side. It was much like Gettysburg in that its meeting engagement was an unintended consequence of Japan's strategy to move south leapfrogging airfields in the region.