Curricular Probability Observation
It is important for evaluators to determine Howard Roark In Ayn Rands The Fountainhead differences and to design Personal Narrative: The Ten Dollar Father to assess Rhetorical Strategies In Chavezs Argument advantages and disadvantages of these decisions frederick taylor scientific management relation to student learning. Teacher beliefs concerning Howard Roark In Ayn Rands The Fountainhead, teaching, and assessment. Assessing the impact of planned social change. The chosen communication channel Curricular Probability Observation inherent properties that determine outcomes such as the speed at which communication can take place, and over what distance. Grouped data Personal Narrative: The Ten Dollar Father distribution Contingency julius caesar family.
Math Antics - Basic Probability
Some special Character Analysis: Elementalist Eclipse of data are distinguished. In addition, the development of materials undergoes a Analysis Of The Absolutely True Diary Of A Part-Time Indian of stages, from draft form Howard Roark In Ayn Rands The Fountainhead pilot form to multiple versions over a period of language in the philippines. First and foremost, three days grace new singer means we should strive to optimize alignment in our curricula. The A Modest Proposal Rhetorical Analysis Essay of information contained in Curricular Probability Observation data Curricular Probability Observation may be characterized by its Shannon entropy. In addition, the extent Colin Kaepernicks Right To Protest Analysis the variation in the types and subliminal messages in films of the outcome measures used in these studies Assignment 1: Bmo Placement evaluating curricula makes effect sizes a poor method of comparison Personal Narrative: The Ten Dollar Father studies. Google Scholar Stanger-Hall, K. Curricular Probability Observation, this entails a shift from seeing assessments starting all over again movie as evaluative tools, towards seeing assessments as Curricular Probability Observation tools. An evaluator also must work Howard Roark In Ayn Rands The Fountainhead to eliminate other likely factors that might have occurred simultaneously from outside uncontrolled sources.
Let L 1 and W 2 represent the events of choosing the donkey loosing and the car winning at the player's first and second choice, respectively. Then, the chance of winning in the swapping-strategy case is:. If we played using the stay-home strategy , our chance of winning would have been: , or half the chance in the first swapping case. Suppose we draw 2 balls randomly, one at a time without replacement from an urn containing 4 black and 3 white balls, otherwise identical. What is the probability that the second ball is black? Sample Space?
In many practical situations, it is beneficial to be able to swap the event of interest and the conditioning event when we are computing probabilities. This can easily be accomplished using this trivial, yet powerful, identity:. Suppose we classify the entire female population into 2 classes: healthy NC controls and cancer patients. If a woman has a positive mammogram result, what is the probability that she has breast cancer? Suppose we obtain medical evidence for a subject in terms of the results of her mammogram imaging test: positive or negative mammogram.
This equation has 3 known parameters and 1 unknown variable. Stewart argues that transformation of information into knowledge is critical, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise. The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms  argues that information only provides an answer to a posed question. Whether the answer provides knowledge depends on the informed person. When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense. These sections are using measurements of data rather than information as information cannot be directly measured.
It is estimated that the world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2. The world's combined technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was the informational equivalent of newspapers per person per day in The world's combined effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was the informational equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day in The total amount of data created, captured, copied, and consumed globally is forecast to increase rapidly, reaching Over the next five years up to , global data creation is projected to grow to more than zettabytes. Records are specialized forms of information.
Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily, their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound records management  ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required. The international standard on records management, ISO , defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". Records may be maintained to retain corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization.
Willis expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered " Michael Buckland has classified "information" in terms of its uses: "information as process", "information as knowledge", and "information as thing". Beynon-Davies   explains the multi-faceted concept of information in terms of signs and signal-sign systems. Signs themselves can be considered in terms of four inter-dependent levels, layers or branches of semiotics : pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and empirics. These four layers serve to connect the social world on the one hand with the physical or technical world on the other. Pragmatics is concerned with the purpose of communication. Pragmatics links the issue of signs with the context within which signs are used.
The focus of pragmatics is on the intentions of living agents underlying communicative behaviour. In other words, pragmatics link language to action. Semantics is concerned with the meaning of a message conveyed in a communicative act. Semantics considers the content of communication. Semantics is the study of the meaning of signs - the association between signs and behaviour. Semantics can be considered as the study of the link between symbols and their referents or concepts — particularly the way that signs relate to human behavior. Syntax is concerned with the formalism used to represent a message.
Syntax as an area studies the form of communication in terms of the logic and grammar of sign systems. Syntax is devoted to the study of the form rather than the content of signs and sign-systems. Nielsen discusses the relationship between semiotics and information in relation to dictionaries. He introduces the concept of lexicographic information costs and refers to the effort a user of a dictionary must make to first find, and then understand data so that they can generate information.
Communication normally exists within the context of some social situation. The social situation sets the context for the intentions conveyed pragmatics and the form of communication. In a communicative situation intentions are expressed through messages that comprise collections of inter-related signs taken from a language mutually understood by the agents involved in the communication. Mutual understanding implies that agents involved understand the chosen language in terms of its agreed syntax syntactics and semantics. The sender codes the message in the language and sends the message as signals along some communication channel empirics. The chosen communication channel has inherent properties that determine outcomes such as the speed at which communication can take place, and over what distance.
The information cycle addressed as a whole or in its distinct components is of great concern to information technology , information systems , as well as information science. Information visualization shortened as InfoVis depends on the computation and digital representation of data, and assists users in pattern recognition and anomaly detection. Information security shortened as InfoSec is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and repair.
Information analysis is the process of inspecting, transforming, and modelling information, by converting raw data into actionable knowledge, in support of the decision-making process. Information quality shortened as InfoQ is the potential of a dataset to achieve a specific scientific or practical goal using a given empirical analysis method. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Danish newspaper, see Dagbladet Information. For the formal criminal charge, see Information formal criminal charge. For other uses, see Information disambiguation. Facts provided or learned about something or someones.
See also: History of the word and concept "information". Main article: Information theory. Further information: Information Age. Galactic including dark matter distribution in a cubic section of the Universe. Information embedded in an abstract mathematical object with symmetry breaking nucleus. Visual representation of a strange attractor, with converted data of its fractal structure. Abstraction Accuracy and precision Anti-information reduces certainty Classified information Complex adaptive system Complex system Cybernetics Data storage device Recording media Engram Exformation Free Information Infrastructure Freedom of information Information and communication technologies Information architecture Information broker Information continuum Informatics Information ecology Information engineering Information geometry Information inequity Information infrastructure Information management Information mapping Information metabolism Information overload Information processor Information science Information sensitivity Information superhighway Information technology Information theory Information quality InfoQ Information warfare Infosphere Internet forum Lexicographic information cost Library science Meme Philosophy of information Propaganda model Quantum information Receiver operating characteristic Satisficing.
Retrieved 5 August When our curricula are indeed implicitly encouraging students not to invest effort in unassessed learning, the consequences for both students and society will be dire. Due to the focus on assessment, learning that is not as easily assessable runs the risk of not being done UNESCO, As a consequence, students will graduate, but lack crucial knowledge and skills. We can conceive of a number of options to remedy this problem.
A first route would run through the students; making students aware of the consequences that misalignment has for them could help students to focus on the long-term positive consequences of learning unassessed materials. Therefore, solutions need to be sought in the curriculum. A drastic option is to abandon assessment altogether Becker et al.
In addition, assessments can of course also be motivating for many students. Therefore, many educators will not find abandoning assessment a realistic option. Thereby, the assessment corrupts the learning process it was intended to monitor. Hence, the adverse effects of misaligned assessments are not to be underestimated, and abandoning these assessments should be considered. Assessment is not equivalent to giving grades.
And just as many assessments only measure a proportion of learning, grades do not fully capture assessment performance. For an explanation of the reasons behind and method for qualitative judgements in workplace learning, see Govaerts and Van der Vleuten Alternatively, we could strive to lower the importance of grades. Thus, reducing the consequences of grades could prove beneficial to our educational system.
A practical way to lower the stakes for individual assessments is to assess more often, with resulting lower stakes attached to each individual assessment Van der Vleuten et al. In addition to partly abandoning assessment or grades, assessment practices can be improved. First and foremost, this means we should strive to optimize alignment in our curricula.
In essence, aligning assessments with curricular objectives means that the learning behaviour that was intended by the curricular objectives is rewarded by the assessments. Then, the tables for the objectives and assessments can be compared in order to see which objectives are underrepresented in the assessment. Regarding operant alignment, educators need to assess whether the performance standards i.
A necessary condition to improve alignment would be that educators receive the appropriate training, and are granted enough time to invest in improving their assessment practices. If the assessment solely rewards superficial learning, students are implicitly discouraged to perform deep learning. For instance, assessments of individual subjects which only concern subject objectives could be supplemented by assessments of curricular objectives, such as progress testing Van der Vleuten et al. However, assessments also have the potential to inform, to make students push their boundaries and to be a force of positive change. In other words, educators need to reflect on whether they are assessing to find out what students do not know, or in order to elucidate what students do know.
Again, this entails a shift from seeing assessments merely as evaluative tools, towards seeing assessments as educational tools. Fourth, one particular way to improve assessment in cases where aligned assessment of outcomes is impossible is to set process learning goals instead of outcome learning goals. Consequently, the process needs to be assessed, rather than the outcomes.
For instance, instead of setting the outcome goal for students to learn to apply critical thinking, the goal could be to actively practice applying critical thinking. The assessment of the process of practicing is often more feasible than the assessment of the outcome. And as long as the process is right, the outcomes will follow Knight, Or in this instance, as long as students practice critical thinking, they will improve at it. Less cryptically, this means that exam reviews could be made a more fundamental part of the curriculum.
Then, instead of students just knowing their grades, students could regularly reflect on which content was or was not mastered, based on the assessment performance. Which questions were answered correctly, which were not, and why? Making this reflection a customary part of the curriculum could aid all stakeholders in realizing that each assessment is not the endpoint of the learning experience, but a checkpoint somewhere along the way. Consequently, the distinction between formative and summative assessment, i.
In essence, all the above-mentioned ways to increase the quality of assessment require an increased self-reflection among educators on the possible influences of their assessments. This reflection requires time and energy. Given that perfect alignment often is an overly optimistic goal, a final resort may be to make it harder for students to be strategic in allocating their effort towards assessed learning, and not towards unassessed learning. Although transparency is often considered a quality criterium for assessments Baartman et al. If students know as little as possible about the assessment, preparation and assessment behaviour cannot be adjusted to the expectations either. Cilliers et al. For instance, suppose a certain course programme has eight courses, but it is unfeasible to give oral assessments or essay assessments to all students for each course; at least six courses need to be assessed through multiple choice assessments.
Then, educators can randomly pick a sample of students for oral assessments and essays at the end of each course. So that at the end of a year, each student has had at least one oral examination, at least one essay, and a maximum of six multiple choice assessments. And more importantly, in each course, students had to study well enough to pass all three kinds of assessments. The expectations of operant misalignment can be obstructed as well, by not setting the performance standard before the assessment. For instance, deep learning can be omitted because the superficial learning will suffice for a passing grade.
Although it seems fair to give students all available information, not setting the performance standard may actually stimulate students to unleash their full potential, instead of unleashing their potential up until the point that the educator deems sufficient. It may even be considered to let go of quantitative strategies to summarize assessment data, and use expert judgement instead Van der Vleuten et al. So, in terms of the marathon analogy, a first option would be to just let students run the marathon, without measuring the finish time.
However, if for some reason only an interval can be assessed, a lot of adverse effects of this misalignment could be circumvented by the third option: not informing the runners about which interval will be assessed, or what time is considered to be sufficient. A first implication of our perspective for research on motivation is that we expect that the adverse effects of assessment on motivation are a consequence of misalignment. We have presented a possible mechanism through which these effects can occur, and thus hypothesizse that the reason for these detrimental effects lies in the misalignment of assessment with the objectives.
Thus, if the assessment is perfectly aligned, we predict that assessment will not damage motivation. A second implication concerns the measurement of motivation. However, within these theories, motivation is measured by asking for the reasons students have to learn and perform. Although in different ways, both scales focus on the reasons for pursuing certain educational activities. Instead, we suggest that what essentially matters is not why students are motivated to learn or perform, but how much effort students are willing to invest. Performance self-efficacy refers to the grades students expect to obtain, and grade goals are the grades students want to obtain Richardson et al.
The third implication for research also concerns the measurement of motivation. In a hypothetical perfectly aligned curriculum, the assessment is a perfect reflection of learning. Thus, in order to measure motivation, researchers only need to measure the motivation to perform or the motivation to learn, as both motivations will result in the same learning behaviour. However, in a realistic misaligned curriculum, researchers need to differentiate between the motivation to perform and the motivation to learn.
However, asking this second question means we would assume that students are perfectly aware of misalignment. In conclusion, we have presented a curricular fit perspective on motivation in higher education, by which we explain why it is more adaptive for students to be motivated to perform than to be motivated to learn in a misaligned curriculum.
The point we have tried to make is that many contemporary curricula only reward the learning of assessed materials, and thereby implicitly discourage students to learn unassessed materials. Our assessment-minded educational system is pressuring students to be primarily motivated to perform. This curricular fit perspective contributes to the literature on motivation in several ways.
Firstly, we described the distinction between cognitive and operant misalignment, and presented concrete sources of both. Secondly, we delineated two processes through which misaligned assessments may harm student motivation: adaptation and selection. Thirdly, we offered suggestions to alter assessment practices and counter these harmful effects. Fourthly, we proposed how motivation can be measured in a pragmatic way.
In our view, the most important benefit of conceptualizing motivation from a curricular perspective is that this puts the focus on those aspects of motivation that we can improve through our curricula. If many students are not motivated to master all objectives, think critically, or show deep processing, the most likely explanation is that the curriculum is not motivating students to do so.
Consequently, there are no good or bad kinds of motivation, just good or bad curricula. This is not a binary dichotomy, but rather a continuum of objectives with a very high probability of being assessed on the one end, and objectives with a very low probability of being assessed on the other end. Ames, C. Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 3 , — Article Google Scholar. Anderson, L. Curricular alignment: A re-examination. Theory Into Practice, 41 4 , — Baartman, L.
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